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CreateFont info  Overview  Group

The CreateFont function creates a logical font that has specific characteristics. The logical font can subsequently be selected as the font for any device.

HFONT CreateFont(

    int nHeight,

// logical height of font

    int nWidth,

// logical average character width

    int nEscapement,

// angle of escapement

    int nOrientation,

// base-line orientation angle

    int fnWeight,

// font weight

    DWORD fdwItalic,

// italic attribute flag

    DWORD fdwUnderline,

// underline attribute flag

    DWORD fdwStrikeOut,

// strikeout attribute flag

    DWORD fdwCharSet,

// character set identifier

    DWORD fdwOutputPrecision,

// output precision

    DWORD fdwClipPrecision,

// clipping precision

    DWORD fdwQuality,

// output quality

    DWORD fdwPitchAndFamily,

// pitch and family

    LPCTSTR lpszFace 

// pointer to typeface name string

   );

Parameters

nHeight
Specifies the height, in logical units, of the font’s character cell or character. The character height value (also known as the em height) is the character cell height value minus the internal-leading value. The font mapper interprets the value specified in nHeight in the following manner:

Value

Meaning

> 0

The font mapper transforms this value into device units and matches it against the cell height of the available fonts.

0

The font mapper uses a default height value when it searches for a match.

< 0

The font mapper transforms this value into device units and matches its absolute value against the character height of the available fonts.

For all height comparisons, the font mapper looks for the largest font that does not exceed the requested size.

This mapping occurs when the font is used for the first time.

For the MM_TEXT mapping mode, you can use the following formula to specify a height for a font with a specified point size:

 

nHeight = -MulDiv(PointSize, GetDeviceCaps(hDC, LOGPIXELSY), 72);

 
nWidth
Specifies the average width, in logical units, of characters in the requested font. If this value is zero, the font mapper chooses a “closest match” value. The “closest match” value is determined by comparing the absolute values of the difference between the current device’s aspect ratio and the digitized aspect ratio of available fonts.
nEscapement
Specifies the angle, in tenths of degrees, between the escapement vector and the x-axis of the device. The escapement vector is parallel to the base line of a row of text.
Windows NT: 
When the graphics mode is set to GM_ADVANCED, you can specify the escapement angle of the string independently of the orientation angle of the string’s characters.

When the graphics mode is set to GM_COMPATIBLE, nEscapement specifies both the escapement and orientation. You should set nEscapement and nOrientation to the same value.

Windows 95: 
The nEscapement parameter specifies both the escapement and orientation. You should set nEscapement and nOrientation to the same value.
nOrientation
Specifies the angle, in tenths of degrees, between each character’s base line and the x-axis of the device.
fnWeight
Specifies the weight of the font in the range 0 through 1000. For example, 400 is normal and 700 is bold. If this value is zero, a default weight is used.

The following values are defined for convenience:

Value

Weight

FW_DONTCARE

0

FW_THIN

100

FW_EXTRALIGHT

200

FW_ULTRALIGHT

200

FW_LIGHT

300

FW_NORMAL

400

FW_REGULAR

400

FW_MEDIUM

500

FW_SEMIBOLD

600

FW_DEMIBOLD

600

FW_BOLD

700

FW_EXTRABOLD

800

FW_ULTRABOLD

800

FW_HEAVY

900

FW_BLACK

900

fdwItalic
Specifies an italic font if set to TRUE.
fdwUnderline
Specifies an underlined font if set to TRUE.
fdwStrikeOut
Specifies a strikeout font if set to TRUE.
fdwCharSet
Specifies the character set. The following values are predefined:

ANSI_CHARSET
DEFAULT_CHARSET
SYMBOL_CHARSET
SHIFTJIS_CHARSET
GB2312_CHARSET
HANGEUL_CHARSET
CHINESEBIG5_CHARSET
OEM_CHARSET

Windows 95 only:
JOHAB_CHARSET
HEBREW_CHARSET
ARABIC_CHARSET
GREEK_CHARSET
TURKISH_CHARSET
THAI_CHARSET
EASTEUROPE_CHARSET
RUSSIAN_CHARSET
MAC_CHARSET
BALTIC_CHARSET

The OEM_CHARSET value specifies a character set that is operating-system dependent.

You can use the DEFAULT_CHARSET value to allow the name and size of a font to fully describe the logical font. If the specified font name does not exist, a font from any character set can be substituted for the specified font, so you should use DEFAULT_CHARSET sparingly to avoid unexpected results.

Fonts with other character sets may exist in the operating system. If an application uses a font with an unknown character set, it should not attempt to translate or interpret strings that are rendered with that font.

This parameter is important in the font mapping process. To ensure consistent results, specify a specific character set. If you specify a typeface name in the lpszFace parameter, make sure that the fdwCharSet value matches the character set of the typeface specified in lpszFace.

fdwOutputPrecision
Specifies the output precision. The output precision defines how closely the output must match the requested font’s height, width, character orientation, escapement, pitch, and font type. It can be one of the following values:

Value

Meaning

OUT_CHARACTER_PRECIS

Not used.

OUT_DEFAULT_PRECIS

Specifies the default font mapper behavior.

OUT_DEVICE_PRECIS

Instructs the font mapper to choose a Device font when the system contains multiple fonts with the same name.

OUT_OUTLINE_PRECIS

Windows NT: This value instructs the font mapper to choose from TrueType and other outline-based fonts.

Windows 95: This value is not used.

OUT_RASTER_PRECIS

Instructs the font mapper to choose a raster font when the system contains multiple fonts with the same name.

OUT_STRING_PRECIS

This value is not used by the font mapper, but it is returned when raster fonts are enumerated.

OUT_STROKE_PRECIS

Windows NT: This value is not used by the font mapper, but it is returned when TrueType, other outline-based fonts, and vector fonts are enumerated.

Windows 95: This value is used to map vector fonts, and is returned when TrueType or vector fonts are enumerated.

OUT_TT_ONLY_PRECIS

Instructs the font mapper to choose from only TrueType fonts. If there are no TrueType fonts installed in the system, the font mapper returns to default behavior.

OUT_TT_PRECIS

Instructs the font mapper to choose a TrueType font when the system contains multiple fonts with the same name.

Applications can use the OUT_DEVICE_PRECIS, OUT_RASTER_PRECIS, and OUT_TT_PRECIS values to control how the font mapper chooses a font when the operating system contains more than one font with a specified name. For example, if an operating system contains a font named Symbol in raster and TrueType form, specifying OUT_TT_PRECIS forces the font mapper to choose the TrueType version. Specifying OUT_TT_ONLY_PRECIS forces the font mapper to choose a TrueType font, even if it must substitute a TrueType font of another name.

fdwClipPrecision
Specifies the clipping precision. The clipping precision defines how to clip characters that are partially outside the clipping region. It can be one or more of the following values:

Value

Meaning

CLIP_DEFAULT_PRECIS

Specifies default clipping behavior.

CLIP_CHARACTER_PRECIS

Not used.

CLIP_STROKE_PRECIS

Not used by the font mapper, but is returned when raster, vector, or TrueType fonts are enumerated.

Windows NT: For compatibility, this value is always returned when enumerating fonts.

CLIP_MASK

Not used.

CLIP_EMBEDDED

You must specify this flag to use an embedded read-only font.

CLIP_LH_ANGLES

When this value is used, the rotation for all fonts depends on whether the orientation of the coordinate system is left-handed or right-handed.

If not used, device fonts always rotate counterclockwise, but the rotation of other fonts is dependent on the orientation of the coordinate system.

For more information about the orientation of coordinate systems, see the description of the nOrientation parameter

CLIP_TT_ALWAYS

Not used.

fdwQuality
Specifies the output quality. The output quality defines how carefully GDI must attempt to match the logical-font attributes to those of an actual physical font. It can be one of the following values:

Value

Meaning

DEFAULT_QUALITY

Appearance of the font does not matter.

DRAFT_QUALITY

Appearance of the font is less important than when the PROOF_QUALITY value is used. For GDI raster fonts, scaling is enabled, which means that more font sizes are available, but the quality may be lower. Bold, italic, underline, and strikeout fonts are synthesized if necessary.

PROOF_QUALITY

Character quality of the font is more important than exact matching of the logical-font attributes. For GDI raster fonts, scaling is disabled and the font closest in size is chosen. Although the chosen font size may not be mapped exactly when PROOF_QUALITY is used, the quality of the font is high and there is no distortion of appearance. Bold, italic, underline, and strikeout fonts are synthesized if necessary.

fdwPitchAndFamily
Specifies the pitch and family of the font. The two low-order bits specify the pitch of the font and can be one of the following values:

DEFAULT_PITCH
FIXED_PITCH
VARIABLE_PITCH

The four high-order bits specify the font family and can be one of the following values:

Value

Description

FF_DECORATIVE

Novelty fonts. Old English is an example.

FF_DONTCARE

Don’t care or don’t know.

FF_MODERN

Fonts with constant stroke width, with or without serifs. Pica, Elite, and Courier New® are examples.

FF_ROMAN

Fonts with variable stroke width and with serifs. MS® Serif is an example.

FF_SCRIPT

Fonts designed to look like handwriting. Script and Cursive are examples.

FF_SWISS

Fonts with variable stroke width and without serifs. MS Sans Serif is an example.

An application can specify a value for the fdwPitchAndFamily parameter by using the Boolean OR operator to join a pitch constant with a family constant.

Font families describe the look of a font in a general way. They are intended for specifying fonts when the exact typeface requested is not available.

lpszFace
Points to a null-terminated string that specifies the typeface name of the font. The length of this string must not exceed 32 characters, including the null terminator. The EnumFontFamilies function can be used to enumerate the typeface names of all currently available fonts.

If lpszFace is NULL or points to an empty string, GDI uses the first font that matches the other specified attributes.

Return Values

If the function succeeds, the return value is a handle to a logical font.

If the function fails, the return value is NULL. To get extended error information, call GetLastError.

Remarks

When you no longer need the font, call the DeleteObject function to delete it.

To help protect the copyrights of vendors who provide fonts for Windows operating systems, applications should always report the exact name of a selected font. Because available fonts can vary from system to system, do not assume that the selected font is always the same as the requested font. For example, if you request a font named “Palatino,” but no such font is available on the system, the font mapper will substitute a font that has similar attributes but a different name. Always report the name of the selected font to the user.

See Also

DeleteObject, SelectObject, EnumFontFamilies 

See also:


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