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The dBase Language

Command      	Description
------------ 	-------------------------------------------------------
?		Evaluates and displays the value of expressions
??		as above without first issuing a carriage return
@ SAY		Displays an expression on the CRT or Printer
@ GET		Displays a variable on the CRT for editing
ACCEPT		Accepts Keyboard input to a variable
APPEND		Add records to the end of a database
AVERAGE		Average a numerical value between records
BROWSE		Display and edit records in a tablular form
CALL		Executes a binary file (module)
CANCEL		Cancel the execution of the current program
CHANGE		Change data in the database on the screen
CLEAR		Clear the screen or data in fields, memory etc...
CLOSE		Close a currently open file
CONTINUE 	Find the next match of the current LOCATE
COPY		
COPYFILE 
COUNT
CREATE
DELETE
DELETE FILE 
DIR
DISPLAY
DISPLAY CMDS 
DO
DO CASE
DO WHILE 
EDIT
EJECT
ERASE 
EXIT
EXPORT
FIND 
GO
GOTO
IF 
IMPORT
INDEX
INPUT 
INSERT
JOIN
LABEL 
LIST
LIST CMDS
LOAD 
LOCATE
LOOP
MACRO (&) 
MODIFY
MODIFY CMDS
(MODICOMM)
NOTE (*)
ON
PACK 
PARAMETERS
PRIVATE
PROCEDURE 
PUBLIC
QUERY
QUIT 
READ
RECALL
REINDEX 
RELEASE
RENAME
REPLACE 
REPORT
RESTORE
RESUME 
RETRY
RETURN
RUN/! 
SAVE
SCREEN
SEEK 
SELECT
SET
SKIP 
SORT
STORE
SUM 
SUSPEND
TEXT
TOTAL 
TYPE
UPDATE
USE 
VIEW
WAIT
ZAP





BOF()                   .T. if the record pointer is before the first
                        logical record of the file.
DBF()		       The name of the database file if one is open.
                        Null string if there isn't one open.
DELETED()	       .T. if record is marked for deletion.
EOF()		       .T. if the record pointer is after the last logical
			record in the file.
FIELD((expN))	       The name of the field in the database corresponding
                        to (expN).  Valid numbers are 1...128.  Invalid
                        numbers return a null string.
FOUND()		       .T. if a match was found for a previously issued
                        search command.
LUPDATE()	       Date of last update to database.
NDX((expN))	       The name of the index file (from the list of index
                        files) which corresponds to (expN).  A null string
                        if there is no index.
RECCOUNT()	       Number of records in the database.
RECNO()		       Number of the current record.
RECSIZE()	       Number of bytes needed by a record.
CDOW((expD))	       The name of the day of the week used in (expD).
CMONTH((expD))	       The name of the month used in (expD).
CTOD((expC))	       Date of the (expC).
DATE()		       The system date in the SET DATE format.
DAY((expD))	       Number indicating the day of the month.
DOW((expD))	       Number of the day of the week used in (expD).
DTOC((expD))	       Character string in the SET DATE format of (expD).
MONTH((expD))	       Number of the month used in (expD).
YEAR((expD))	       Number of the year used in (expD).
COL()		       The number representing the position of the cursor
                        on the screen.
DISKSPACE()	       The number of bytes left on the default disk.
ERROR()		       The error number of the last error that triggered
                        an ON ERROR command.
FILE((expC))	       .T. if the file exists.
FKLABEL((expN))	       The name of the function key corresponding to (expN).
FKMAX()		       The maximum number of programmable function keys.
GETENV((expC))	       The character string contents of a system
                        environmental variable.
INKEY()		       The number (0...255) corresponding to the
                        ASCII code of the last key pressed.
ISCOLOR()	       .T. if the system is running in color.
MESSAGE()	       The error message matching the last error
                        number from ERROR().
OS()		       The name of the computer operating system.
PCOL()		       The number of the column where the print
                        head is located.
PROW()		       The number of the row where the print head
			is located.
READKEY()	       The number representing the key used to exit
                        a full-screen command.
ROW()		       The number of the row where the cursor is located.
TIME()		       The system time in "hh:mm:ss" format.
TYPE((expC))	       A single character code indicating the type of the
                        (expC) or the validity of the (expC).
VERSION()	       A character string representing the version of the
                        dBASE III PLUS executing.
ABS((expN))		       The absolute value of the (expN).
EXP((expN))		       The value of e to the (expN) power.
IIF((expL), (exp1), (exp2))     (exp1) if (expL) is evaluated to be .T.,
                                (exp2) if (expL) is .F.  ((exp1) and (exp2)
                                must be the same data type).
INT((expN))		       The integer portion of (expN).
LOG((expN))		       The natural logarithm of (expN).
MAX((expN1), (expN2))	       The value of the maximum of either (expN1)
                                or (expN2).
MIN((expN1), (expN2))	       The value of the minimum of either (expN1)
                                or (expN2).
MOD((expN1), (expN2))	       The remainder of (expN1) divided by (expN2).
ROUND((expN1), (expN2))	       The value of (expN1) rounded to (expN2)
                                decimal places.
SQRT((expN))		       The square root of the value of (expN).
STR((expN1), (expN2), [(expN3)])        The character string of (expN1),
                                        (expN2) characters long with (expN3)
                                        decimal places.
TRANSFORM((expN)/(expC1), (expC2))      A character string created from either
                                        the (expN) or (expC1) in the format of
                                        (expC2).  Use @...SAY PICTURE options
                                        to format.
VAL((expC))			       The numeric value of the (expC).
ASC((expC))	       The number representing the ASCII equivalent of the
                        leftmost character of the (expC).
AT((expC1), (expC2))    A number indicating the position of (expC1) inside
                        (expC2).  Zero if (expC1) isn't there.
CHR((expN))	       A character string indicating the ASCII equivalent
                        of the (expN).
ISALPHA((expC))	       .T. if the first character of (expC) is a letter.
ISLOWER((expC))	       .T. if the first character of (expC) is a lowercase
                        letter.
ISUPPER((expC))		       .T. if the first character of (expC) is an
                                uppercase letter.
LEFT((expC), (expN))	       A string containing the leftmost (expN)
                                characters from the (expC).
LEN((expC))		       The length of the (expC).
LOWER((expC))		       The lowercase equivalent of (expC).
LTRIM((expC))		       (expC) with all leading blank characters
                                removed.
REPLICATE((expC), (expN))       A string containing (expN) repetitions of the
                                (expC).
RIGHT((expC), (expN))	       A string containing (expN) characters from the
                                right of (expC).
RTRIM((expC))		       (expC) with all the trailing blanks removed.
SPACE((expN))		       A string of blanks (expN) characters in length.
STUFF((expC1), (expN1),	       Overlay (expC1) with (expC2), starting at
        (expN2), (expC2))       (expN1) for (expN2) characters.
SUBSTR((expC), (expN1)	       A string which is (expN2) characters long and
        [,(expN2)])             starts at (expN1) inside (expC).
TRIM((expC))		       (expC) with all the trailing blanks removed.
UPPER((expC))		       The uppercase equivalent of (expC).
SET ALTERNATE
SET CATALOG
SET COLOR
SET DATE
SET DECIMALS
SET DEFAULT
SET DELIMITERS
SET DEVICE
SET FIELDS
SET FILTER
SET FUNCTION
SET FORMAT
SET HISTORY
SET INDEX
SET MARGIN
SET MEMOWIDTH
SET MESSAGE
SET ORDER
SET PATH
SET PRINT
SET PROCEDURE
SET RELATION
SET TYPEAHEAD
SET VIEW
SET BELL ON/off	       Enables the console bell.
SET CARRY on/OFF        Brings information from the last record into the
                        next record.
SET CENTURY on/OFF      Makes all dates display with a 4 digit year
                        (e.g. 1985).
SET CONFIRM on/OFF      Requires the user to press the Enter key before
                        dBASE III PLUS continues to the next GET.
SET CONSOLE ON/off      Makes sure all information is displayed on the
                        screen.
SET DEBUG on/OFF        Routes output of SET ECHO to the printer.
SET DELETED on/OFF      Ignores all records marked for deletion.
SET DOHISTORY on/OFF    Captures commands executed from a program file in
                        HISTORY.
SET ECHO on/OFF	       Echoes commands executed in a program to the screen.
SET ESCAPE ON/off       Allows an executing program to be interrupted from the
                        keyboard with the Esc key.
SET EXACT on/OFF        Requires an exact match for character string equality.
SET FIXED on/OFF        Displays a fixed number of decimal places for numeric
                        output.
SET HEADINGS ON/off     Displays field headings during the LIST and DISPLAY
                        operations.
SET HELP ON/off	       Asks the question, "Do you want some help? (Y/N)"
                        when you make a mistake.
SET INTENSITY ON/off    Uses enhanced mode for full-screen commands.
SET MENUS ON/off        Displays the cursor navigation menu during full-screen
                        commands.
SET SAFETY ON/off       Reminds the user when he/she is about to overwrite an
                        already existing file.
SET SCOREBOARD ON/off   Displays messages on the status bar or top line.
SET STATUS ON/off       Displays the status bar at the bottom of all
                        full-screen operation.
SET STEP on/OFF	       Halts execution after each command.
SET TALK ON/off	       Puts command results on the screen.
SET TITLE ON/off        Prompts for a file title when a catalog is in use.
SET UNIQUE on/OFF       Includes in the index file only the first record of a
                        set of identical key values.




                                 ?/??
                                 ÍÍÍÍ


 Syntax      :  ? (expression list)
                ?? (expression list)


 Description :  ?/?? is the way to ask dBASE III PLUS a question and have the
                answer displayed on the screen.  ? poses the question and
                the expression list tells dBASE III PLUS in its terms exactly
                what should be shown.  The expression list can include
                any type expression.

 See also    :  @...SAY, TEXT
                                APPEND
                                ÍÍÍÍÍÍ


 Syntax      :  APPEND [BLANK]
                APPEND FROM (file) [FOR (condition)]
                        [[TYPE] (file type)] /
                        [DELIMITED [WITH BLANK/(delimiter)]]

 Description :  Uses the full-screen data entry mode to add a BLANK
                record to the active database file.  APPEND FROM copies
                records from the specified file to the end of the
                active database file.  Use the TYPE option to add records
                from another file format.  Use DELIMITED if the added
                records have delimiters such as BLANK spaces or quotation
                marks around each field.


 Syntax      :  AVERAGE [(expN list)] [(scope)] [FOR (condition)]
                        [WHILE (condition)] [TO (memvar list)]

 Description :  Computes the arithmetic mean of numeric expressions.
                All numeric fields in the database file are averaged
                unless limited by the numeric expression list.  The
                TO phrase stores the results of the operation in
                memory variables.

 See also    :  COUNT, SUM
                                BROWSE
                                ÍÍÍÍÍÍ


 Syntax      :  BROWSE [FIELDS (field list)] [LOCK (expN)]
                        [WIDTH (expN)] [FREEZE (field)] [NOFOLLOW]
                        [NOAPPEND] [NOMENU]

 Description :  Allows full-screen window editing of several records.
                FIELDS specifies which fields to edit.  LOCK defines the
                number of leftmost fields which remain stationary while
                panning.  WIDTH defines editing width of character fields.
                FREEZE edits a single field.  NOFOLLOW displays the current
                indexed record by replacing the record with the altered key
                field.  NOAPPEND prevents addition of new records to the
                database file.  NOMENU turns off the optional menu.



Questions:

See also:

Comments:


file: /Techref/language/dbase/commands.htm, 18KB, , updated: 2010/3/8 17:29, local time: 2017/10/22 22:13,
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