The dBase Language Command Description ------------ ------------------------------------------------------- ? Evaluates and displays the value of expressions ?? as above without first issuing a carriage return @ SAY Displays an expression on the CRT or Printer @ GET Displays a variable on the CRT for editing ACCEPT Accepts Keyboard input to a variable APPEND Add records to the end of a database AVERAGE Average a numerical value between records BROWSE Display and edit records in a tablular form CALL Executes a binary file (module) CANCEL Cancel the execution of the current program CHANGE Change data in the database on the screen CLEAR Clear the screen or data in fields, memory etc... CLOSE Close a currently open file CONTINUE Find the next match of the current LOCATE COPY COPYFILE COUNT CREATE DELETE DELETE FILE DIR DISPLAY DISPLAY CMDS DO DO CASE DO WHILE EDIT EJECT ERASE EXIT EXPORT FIND GO GOTO IF IMPORT INDEX INPUT INSERT JOIN LABEL LIST LIST CMDS LOAD LOCATE LOOP MACRO (&) MODIFY MODIFY CMDS (MODICOMM) NOTE (*) ON PACK PARAMETERS PRIVATE PROCEDURE PUBLIC QUERY QUIT READ RECALL REINDEX RELEASE RENAME REPLACE REPORT RESTORE RESUME RETRY RETURN RUN/! SAVE SCREEN SEEK SELECT SET SKIP SORT STORE SUM SUSPEND TEXT TOTAL TYPE UPDATE USE VIEW WAIT ZAP BOF() .T. if the record pointer is before the first logical record of the file. DBF() The name of the database file if one is open. Null string if there isn't one open. DELETED() .T. if record is marked for deletion. EOF() .T. if the record pointer is after the last logical record in the file. FIELD((expN)) The name of the field in the database corresponding to (expN). Valid numbers are 1...128. Invalid numbers return a null string. FOUND() .T. if a match was found for a previously issued search command. LUPDATE() Date of last update to database. NDX((expN)) The name of the index file (from the list of index files) which corresponds to (expN). A null string if there is no index. RECCOUNT() Number of records in the database. RECNO() Number of the current record. RECSIZE() Number of bytes needed by a record. CDOW((expD)) The name of the day of the week used in (expD). CMONTH((expD)) The name of the month used in (expD). CTOD((expC)) Date of the (expC). DATE() The system date in the SET DATE format. DAY((expD)) Number indicating the day of the month. DOW((expD)) Number of the day of the week used in (expD). DTOC((expD)) Character string in the SET DATE format of (expD). MONTH((expD)) Number of the month used in (expD). YEAR((expD)) Number of the year used in (expD). COL() The number representing the position of the cursor on the screen. DISKSPACE() The number of bytes left on the default disk. ERROR() The error number of the last error that triggered an ON ERROR command. FILE((expC)) .T. if the file exists. FKLABEL((expN)) The name of the function key corresponding to (expN). FKMAX() The maximum number of programmable function keys. GETENV((expC)) The character string contents of a system environmental variable. INKEY() The number (0...255) corresponding to the ASCII code of the last key pressed. ISCOLOR() .T. if the system is running in color. MESSAGE() The error message matching the last error number from ERROR(). OS() The name of the computer operating system. PCOL() The number of the column where the print head is located. PROW() The number of the row where the print head is located. READKEY() The number representing the key used to exit a full-screen command. ROW() The number of the row where the cursor is located. TIME() The system time in "hh:mm:ss" format. TYPE((expC)) A single character code indicating the type of the (expC) or the validity of the (expC). VERSION() A character string representing the version of the dBASE III PLUS executing. ABS((expN)) The absolute value of the (expN). EXP((expN)) The value of e to the (expN) power. IIF((expL), (exp1), (exp2)) (exp1) if (expL) is evaluated to be .T., (exp2) if (expL) is .F. ((exp1) and (exp2) must be the same data type). INT((expN)) The integer portion of (expN). LOG((expN)) The natural logarithm of (expN). MAX((expN1), (expN2)) The value of the maximum of either (expN1) or (expN2). MIN((expN1), (expN2)) The value of the minimum of either (expN1) or (expN2). MOD((expN1), (expN2)) The remainder of (expN1) divided by (expN2). ROUND((expN1), (expN2)) The value of (expN1) rounded to (expN2) decimal places. SQRT((expN)) The square root of the value of (expN). STR((expN1), (expN2), [(expN3)]) The character string of (expN1), (expN2) characters long with (expN3) decimal places. TRANSFORM((expN)/(expC1), (expC2)) A character string created from either the (expN) or (expC1) in the format of (expC2). Use @...SAY PICTURE options to format. VAL((expC)) The numeric value of the (expC). ASC((expC)) The number representing the ASCII equivalent of the leftmost character of the (expC). AT((expC1), (expC2)) A number indicating the position of (expC1) inside (expC2). Zero if (expC1) isn't there. CHR((expN)) A character string indicating the ASCII equivalent of the (expN). ISALPHA((expC)) .T. if the first character of (expC) is a letter. ISLOWER((expC)) .T. if the first character of (expC) is a lowercase letter. ISUPPER((expC)) .T. if the first character of (expC) is an uppercase letter. LEFT((expC), (expN)) A string containing the leftmost (expN) characters from the (expC). LEN((expC)) The length of the (expC). LOWER((expC)) The lowercase equivalent of (expC). LTRIM((expC)) (expC) with all leading blank characters removed. REPLICATE((expC), (expN)) A string containing (expN) repetitions of the (expC). RIGHT((expC), (expN)) A string containing (expN) characters from the right of (expC). RTRIM((expC)) (expC) with all the trailing blanks removed. SPACE((expN)) A string of blanks (expN) characters in length. STUFF((expC1), (expN1), Overlay (expC1) with (expC2), starting at (expN2), (expC2)) (expN1) for (expN2) characters. SUBSTR((expC), (expN1) A string which is (expN2) characters long and [,(expN2)]) starts at (expN1) inside (expC). TRIM((expC)) (expC) with all the trailing blanks removed. UPPER((expC)) The uppercase equivalent of (expC). SET ALTERNATE SET CATALOG SET COLOR SET DATE SET DECIMALS SET DEFAULT SET DELIMITERS SET DEVICE SET FIELDS SET FILTER SET FUNCTION SET FORMAT SET HISTORY SET INDEX SET MARGIN SET MEMOWIDTH SET MESSAGE SET ORDER SET PATH SET PRINT SET PROCEDURE SET RELATION SET TYPEAHEAD SET VIEW SET BELL ON/off Enables the console bell. SET CARRY on/OFF Brings information from the last record into the next record. SET CENTURY on/OFF Makes all dates display with a 4 digit year (e.g. 1985). SET CONFIRM on/OFF Requires the user to press the Enter key before dBASE III PLUS continues to the next GET. SET CONSOLE ON/off Makes sure all information is displayed on the screen. SET DEBUG on/OFF Routes output of SET ECHO to the printer. SET DELETED on/OFF Ignores all records marked for deletion. SET DOHISTORY on/OFF Captures commands executed from a program file in HISTORY. SET ECHO on/OFF Echoes commands executed in a program to the screen. SET ESCAPE ON/off Allows an executing program to be interrupted from the keyboard with the Esc key. SET EXACT on/OFF Requires an exact match for character string equality. SET FIXED on/OFF Displays a fixed number of decimal places for numeric output. SET HEADINGS ON/off Displays field headings during the LIST and DISPLAY operations. SET HELP ON/off Asks the question, "Do you want some help? (Y/N)" when you make a mistake. SET INTENSITY ON/off Uses enhanced mode for full-screen commands. SET MENUS ON/off Displays the cursor navigation menu during full-screen commands. SET SAFETY ON/off Reminds the user when he/she is about to overwrite an already existing file. SET SCOREBOARD ON/off Displays messages on the status bar or top line. SET STATUS ON/off Displays the status bar at the bottom of all full-screen operation. SET STEP on/OFF Halts execution after each command. SET TALK ON/off Puts command results on the screen. SET TITLE ON/off Prompts for a file title when a catalog is in use. SET UNIQUE on/OFF Includes in the index file only the first record of a set of identical key values. ?/?? ÍÍÍÍ Syntax : ? (expression list) ?? (expression list) Description : ?/?? is the way to ask dBASE III PLUS a question and have the answer displayed on the screen. ? poses the question and the expression list tells dBASE III PLUS in its terms exactly what should be shown. The expression list can include any type expression. See also : @...SAY, TEXT APPEND ÍÍÍÍÍÍ Syntax : APPEND [BLANK] APPEND FROM (file) [FOR (condition)] [[TYPE] (file type)] / [DELIMITED [WITH BLANK/(delimiter)]] Description : Uses the full-screen data entry mode to add a BLANK record to the active database file. APPEND FROM copies records from the specified file to the end of the active database file. Use the TYPE option to add records from another file format. Use DELIMITED if the added records have delimiters such as BLANK spaces or quotation marks around each field. Syntax : AVERAGE [(expN list)] [(scope)] [FOR (condition)] [WHILE (condition)] [TO (memvar list)] Description : Computes the arithmetic mean of numeric expressions. All numeric fields in the database file are averaged unless limited by the numeric expression list. The TO phrase stores the results of the operation in memory variables. See also : COUNT, SUM BROWSE ÍÍÍÍÍÍ Syntax : BROWSE [FIELDS (field list)] [LOCK (expN)] [WIDTH (expN)] [FREEZE (field)] [NOFOLLOW] [NOAPPEND] [NOMENU] Description : Allows full-screen window editing of several records. FIELDS specifies which fields to edit. LOCK defines the number of leftmost fields which remain stationary while panning. WIDTH defines editing width of character fields. FREEZE edits a single field. NOFOLLOW displays the current indexed record by replacing the record with the altered key field. NOAPPEND prevents addition of new records to the database file. NOMENU turns off the optional menu.
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