No exact or substring matches. trying for part
PICList
Thread
'determine if # divisible by 3'
1997\05\29@193214
by
Dwayne Reid

G'day all!
I am looking for a way to determine if a byte value is divisible by 3 and
was about to appeal for help when I remembered that Andy Warren had started
a discussion on that very topic about a year ago. I went looking in my mail
archives and found something that looked quite good written by John Payson.
I tried the shorter of the 2 routines that John posted and found problems
with it. The longer (but faster) routine worked just fine. I spent a
couple of hours with the problem routine and made changes which seem to work
just fine.
Some really neat concepts came out of that discussion that Andy started back
then. I learned some really basic math stuff (casting out nines) that I had
never seen before. Thank you to everyone who contributed.
Here is John's shorter routine:
>> Sum up the 4 "digits": 00 + 10 + 00 + 01 = 11b
>> which of course is divisible by three.
>Actually, I think it's easier to observe that 16%3=1 and do something like
>either this:
swapf Number,w
addwf Number,f ; Note [MSN of Number] % 3 == old Number % 3
rrf Number,w ; We want to add what are now upper and lower
rlf Number,f ; two bits of MSN; 00 or 11 would be good.
bsf Number,4 ; By setting prev two bit of both addends,
iorlw $10 ; we turn 00 and 11 into 01 and 00.
addwf Number,f ; Now we're interested in Number:6
btfss Number,6 ; If set, not multiple of three
retlw 0 ; Return "nope"
retlw 1 ; Return "yep"
>11 cycles constant execution time in 10 words, including the retlw.
The above routine works on some values, but fails on others (at least when
simulated on MPLABSIM 3.22.02). Single stepping through the problem values
showed that setting bit 4 in both addends so as to force a carry to bit 5
was the problem: sometimes adding both bits was already going to cause a
carry to bit 5 and thus bit 5 needed to be incremented by 2, but was only
incremented by 1. I'm not sure this makes sense; single step through the
code and you will see what I mean.
John is testing to see if the final bit pair (bits 5&6) is 11. If it is 11,
then the original number is divisible by 3. I simply modified the code to
add 1 directly instead of relying on a forced carry from bit 4. It is the
same length and requires the same number of cycles.
swapf Number,w ; split #, add 2 halves, keep Most Sig Nybble
addwf Number,f ; Note [MSN of Number] % 3 == old Number % 3
rrf Number,w ; We want to add what are now upper and lower
rlf Number,f ; two bits of MSN; 00 or 11 would be good.
addwf Number,w ; If bits 6&7 are 1, # is divisible by 3
addlw b'00100000' ; treat bits 6&7 as 2 bit #, increment
andlw b'01000000'
skpz
retlw 0 ; Return "nope"
retlw 1 ; Return "yep"
My thanks again for all the help that I have recieved from piclist members.
Dwayne
Dwayne Reid <spam_OUTdwaynerTakeThisOuTplanet.eon.net>
Trinity Electronics Systems Ltd Edmonton, Alberta, CANADA
(403) 4893199 voice (403) 4876397 fax
'determine if # divisible by 3  PDB3WRM'
1997\06\05@193150
by
sdattalo

Dwayne Reid wrote:
> I am looking for a way to determine if a byte value is divisible by 3 and
> was about to appeal for help when I remembered that Andy Warren had started
> a discussion on that very topic about a year ago. I went looking in my mail
> archives and found something that looked quite good written by John Payson.
> I tried the shorter of the 2 routines that John posted and found problems
> with it. The longer (but faster) routine worked just fine. I spent a
> couple of hours with the problem routine and made changes which seem to work
> just fine.
I was fascinated with John's algorithm when he first posted it.
However, I did not take the time until last weekend to really understand
how it works. Since there is some interesting number theory, algorithm
analysis, and PIC code, I think there may be several of you who are
interested in the results.
John's "divisiblebythree" algorithm plus Dwayne's modifications is
very similar to the "castingoutnines" algorithm. The "castingout
nines" algorithm tests for whether a number is divisible by 9 by
summing up the individual (base10) digits of the number and checking
whether the sum is divisible by 9. For example, 2+3+4=9 is divisible
by 9 so we know that 234 is too (and so is 243,342,324,423,432).
A "castingoutthrees" algorithm in base4 is conceptually identical
to the "castingoutnines" in base10. For example, if we had 1221 in
base4 we know it's divisible by 3 since 1+2+2+1 = 6 is divisible by 3.
Here's the "proof". A base4 number can be written as:
____
\
N = /___ a_i * 4^i
where the a_i's are the base4 digits (0,1,2,3) of the number.
____
\
N = /___ (a_i * (4^i  1) + a_i )
If N is divisible by three, then N mod 3 is equal to 0. So take the
'mod 3' of each side:
____
\
N mod 3 = /___ (((a_i * (4^i  1)) mod 3) + (a_i mod 3))
Two observations:
a) 4^i  1 is divisible by 3. This can be seen by rewriting
4^i1 = 3*4^(i1) + 3*4^(i2) + ... + 3*4^0
Since each term in the sum is divisible by three, then the sum
is divisible by three too.
b) a_i mod 3 = a_i or 0 (because a_i = 0,1,2,3). Since we are looking
for the result of N mod 3 = 0, we can replace a_i mod 3 with a_i.
Combining these two observations:
____
\
N mod 3= /___ a_i (mod 3)
If this sum is greater than 3, then we can repeat the algorithm.
PDB3WRM algorithm:
Now we are ready to look at John's "dividebythree" PIC algorithm.
For brevity, let's write the input Number as a generic 4digit
base4 number:
Number = a*64 + b*16 + c*4 + d
Here's John's routine with Dwayne's modifications. I've added the
details
of how the routine modifies Number:
> swapf Number,w ; split #, add 2 halves, keep Most Sig Nybble
W = c*64 + d*16 + a*4 + b
> addwf Number,f ; Note [MSN of Number] % 3 == old Number % 3
Number = (a+c)*64 + (b+d)*16 + (a+c)*4 + (b+d)
> rrf Number,w ; We want to add what are now upper and lower
W = (a+c)*32 + (b+d)*8 + (a+c)*2 + (b+d)>>1
carry = (b+d)&1 ;i.e. lsb of the sum of b and d is in the carry
> rlf Number,f ; two bits of MSN; 00 or 11 would be good.
Number = (a+c)*128 + (b+d)*32 + (a+c)*8 + (b+d)*2 + (b+d)&1
> addwf Number,w ; If bits 6&7 are 1, # is divisible by 3
W = (a+c)*128 + (a+b+c+d)*32 + (a+b+c+d)*8 + (a+b+c+d)*2 +
(b+d)>>1 + (b+d)&1
> addlw b'00100000' ; treat bits 6&7 as 2 bit #, increment
> andlw b'01000000'
> skpz
> retlw 0 ; Return "nope"
> retlw 1 ; Return "yep"
In the last equation it can be seen that the 4 digits are added
together.
Unfortunately, there's complicated interaction between the sums.
Furthermore
there's that annoying business with b and d at the end. However after
closer inspection, it can be shown that there are only 14 unique cases
that
need to be analyzed. 13 cases are due to the sum of the digits ranging
from
0 to 12 (the numbers are in binary):
(a+b+c+d)  (a+b+c+d)*32 + (a+b+c+d)*8 + (a+b+c+d)*2
+
==> 0000  00000000
0001  00101010
0010  01010100
==> 0011  01111110
0100  10101000
0101  11010010
==> 0110  11111100
0111  00100110
1000  01010000
==> 1001  01111010
1010  10100100
1011  11001110
==> 1100  11111000
All rows marked with '==>' correspond to a sum of base4 digits that
is divisible by three. The key thing to note is that bits 5 & 6 are
the same value in the second column for those numbers divisible by 3.
The last four lines of the PIC program cleverly detect this.
We have one more case to consider that concerns the expression
(b+d)>>1 + (b+d)&1
that the PIC algorithm adds to the second column of data in the table.
This expression evaluates to either 0,1,2, or 3. Adding these numbers
to the second column of data only affects bits 5 & 6 for the case
when the sum of the digits is 0011. And even there it has the effect of
changing those bits from highs to lows. So the condition that "bits 5
& 6 are the same" is unchanged.
Oh btw, the state of the carry bit upon entry has no effect on the
result.
One more observation. The expression in the second column of the table
can be rewritten:
(a+b+c+d)*32 + (a+b+c+d)*8 + (a+b+c+d)*2 = (a+b+c+d)*42
And the last four steps in the program check bits 5&6 for mod 3'ness.
This can be expressed like so:
Number mod 3 = ((a+b+c+d)*21)/16 mod 3
where Number = a*64+b*16+c*4+d
Which I guess is a concise way of stating the "Paysondivisibleby3
withtheReidModification" or PDB3WRM algorithm.
> Some really neat concepts came out of that discussion that Andy started back
> then.
Yeah, he has a knack for that. Hey Andy, where have you been?
Scott

"The problem with television is not the resolution."
Hugh. F. Frohbach
'[PICLIST] determine if number is divisible by 3'
2001\03\05@201222
by
Dwayne Reid

Good day to all.
This is a revisit of something discussed a few years ago  determine if a
number contained in an 8 bit register is divisible by 3.
The background is: I've got a timebase with a 20 second period as part of a
60 minute timer. Due to changing client requirements, I needed to come up
with a 1 minute timer.
The obvious technique was to simply use 2 bits in a register configured as
a divide by 3 counter.
Simple code to do this:
;generate 1 min tick. uses upper 2 bits of FLAG3 as divide by 3 counter
movlw b'01000000'
addwf FLAG3,F
btfsc FLAG3,7 ;count seq: 00, 01, 10
goto Tic1MinExit
addwf FLAG3,F ;inc cntr from 10 to 11: turns 4/ into /3
bsf _T1MIN ;1 min flag
Tic1MinExit
But at the time that I was coding that project, RAM was tight (the target
was a 16c71 with only 35 bytes of RAM. I posed the question to the list 
Andy Warren and John Payson came to the rescue with one of those magical
little snippets.
I'm bringing this up because I am making more changes to that project. In
doing so, I saw a way to shave 1 instruction / cycle from that magical
little snippet.
;determine if # is evenly divisible by 3. Enters with # in TMP, exits with
TMP trashed
;Concept by John Payson, this version by Jophn Payson & Dwayne Reid
swapf TMP,w ;split #, add 2 halves, keep MSN
addwf TMP,f ;Note [MSN of ADRES] % 3 == old ADRES % 3
rrf TMP,w ;We want to add what are now upper and lower
rlf TMP,f ; two bits of MSN; 00 or 11 would be good.
addwf TMP,w ;If bits 5&6 are 1, # is divisible by 3
addlw b'00100000' ;treat bits 5&6 as 2 bit #, increment
btfss TMP,6 ;if bit 6 is 0, number is divisible by 3
bsf _T1MIN ;1 minute flag
The following is another of Scott Dattalo's excellent explanations of how
this snippet works:
<copy starts>
Dwayne Reid wrote:
> I am looking for a way to determine if a byte value is divisible by 3 and
> was about to appeal for help when I remembered that Andy Warren had started
> a discussion on that very topic about a year ago. I went looking in my mail
> archives and found something that looked quite good written by John Payson.
> I tried the shorter of the 2 routines that John posted and found problems
> with it. The longer (but faster) routine worked just fine. I spent a
> couple of hours with the problem routine and made changes which seem to work
> just fine.
I was fascinated with John's algorithm when he first posted it.
However, I did not take the time until last weekend to really understand
how it works. Since there is some interesting number theory, algorithm
analysis, and PIC code, I think there may be several of you who are
interested in the results.
John's "divisiblebythree" algorithm plus Dwayne's modifications is
very similar to the "castingoutnines" algorithm. The "castingout
nines" algorithm tests for whether a number is divisible by 9 by
summing up the individual (base10) digits of the number and checking
whether the sum is divisible by 9. For example, 2+3+4=9 is divisible
by 9 so we know that 234 is too (and so is 243,342,324,423,432).
A "castingoutthrees" algorithm in base4 is conceptually identical
to the "castingoutnines" in base10. For example, if we had 1221 in
base4 we know it's divisible by 3 since 1+2+2+1 = 6 is divisible by 3.
Here's the "proof". A base4 number can be written as:
____
\
N = /___ a_i * 4^i
where the a_i's are the base4 digits (0,1,2,3) of the number.
____
\
N = /___ (a_i * (4^i  1) + a_i )
If N is divisible by three, then N mod 3 is equal to 0. So take the
'mod 3' of each side:
____
\
N mod 3 = /___ (((a_i * (4^i  1)) mod 3) + (a_i mod 3))
Two observations:
a) 4^i  1 is divisible by 3. This can be seen by rewriting
4^i1 = 3*4^(i1) + 3*4^(i2) + ... + 3*4^0
Since each term in the sum is divisible by three, then the sum
is divisible by three too.
b) a_i mod 3 = a_i or 0 (because a_i = 0,1,2,3). Since we are looking
for the result of N mod 3 = 0, we can replace a_i mod 3 with a_i.
Combining these two observations:
____
\
N mod 3= /___ a_i (mod 3)
If this sum is greater than 3, then we can repeat the algorithm.
PDB3WRM algorithm:
Now we are ready to look at John's "dividebythree" PIC algorithm.
For brevity, let's write the input Number as a generic 4digit
base4 number:
Number = a*64 + b*16 + c*4 + d
Here's John's routine with Dwayne's modifications. I've added the
details
of how the routine modifies Number:
> swapf Number,w ; split #, add 2 halves, keep Most Sig
Nybble
W = c*64 + d*16 + a*4 + b
> addwf Number,f ; Note [MSN of Number] % 3 == old Number % 3
Number = (a+c)*64 + (b+d)*16 + (a+c)*4 + (b+d)
> rrf Number,w ; We want to add what are now upper and
lower
W = (a+c)*32 + (b+d)*8 + (a+c)*2 + (b+d)>>1
carry = (b+d)&1 ;i.e. lsb of the sum of b and d is in the carry
> rlf Number,f ; two bits of MSN; 00 or 11 would be good.
Number = (a+c)*128 + (b+d)*32 + (a+c)*8 + (b+d)*2 + (b+d)&1
> addwf Number,w ; If bits 6&7 are 1, # is divisible by 3
W = (a+c)*128 + (a+b+c+d)*32 + (a+b+c+d)*8 + (a+b+c+d)*2 +
(b+d)>>1 + (b+d)&1
> addlw b'00100000' ; treat bits 6&7 as 2 bit #, increment
> andlw b'01000000'
> skpz
> retlw 0 ; Return "nope"
> retlw 1 ; Return "yep"
In the last equation it can be seen that the 4 digits are added
together.
Unfortunately, there's complicated interaction between the sums.
Furthermore
there's that annoying business with b and d at the end. However after
closer inspection, it can be shown that there are only 14 unique cases
that
need to be analyzed. 13 cases are due to the sum of the digits ranging
from
0 to 12 (the numbers are in binary):
(a+b+c+d)  (a+b+c+d)*32 + (a+b+c+d)*8 + (a+b+c+d)*2
+
==> 0000  00000000
0001  00101010
0010  01010100
==> 0011  01111110
0100  10101000
0101  11010010
==> 0110  11111100
0111  00100110
1000  01010000
==> 1001  01111010
1010  10100100
1011  11001110
==> 1100  11111000
All rows marked with '==>' correspond to a sum of base4 digits that
is divisible by three. The key thing to note is that bits 5 & 6 are
the same value in the second column for those numbers divisible by 3.
The last four (now 3) lines of the PIC program cleverly detect this.
We have one more case to consider that concerns the expression
(b+d)>>1 + (b+d)&1
that the PIC algorithm adds to the second column of data in the table.
This expression evaluates to either 0,1,2, or 3. Adding these numbers
to the second column of data only affects bits 5 & 6 for the case
when the sum of the digits is 0011. And even there it has the effect of
changing those bits from highs to lows. So the condition that "bits 5
& 6 are the same" is unchanged.
Oh btw, the state of the carry bit upon entry has no effect on the
result.
One more observation. The expression in the second column of the table
can be rewritten:
(a+b+c+d)*32 + (a+b+c+d)*8 + (a+b+c+d)*2 = (a+b+c+d)*42
And the last four (3) steps in the program check bits 5&6 for mod 3'ness.
This can be expressed like so:
Number mod 3 = ((a+b+c+d)*21)/16 mod 3
where Number = a*64+b*16+c*4+d
Which I guess is a concise way of stating the "Paysondivisibleby3
withtheReidModification" or PDB3WRM algorithm.
<end of copy>
I hope this is usable for someone else.
dwayne
Dwayne Reid <.....dwaynerKILLspam@spam@planet.eon.net>
Trinity Electronics Systems Ltd Edmonton, AB, CANADA
(780) 4893199 voice (780) 4876397 fax
Celebrating 17 years of Engineering Innovation (1984  2001)
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Do NOT send unsolicited commercial email to this email address.
This message neither grants consent to receive unsolicited
commercial email nor is intended to solicit commercial email.

http://www.piclist.com hint: The PICList is archived three different
ways. See http://www.piclist.com/#archives for details.
2001\03\06@120239
by
Dwayne Reid

resend to the list because of missing tag.
Good day to all.
This is a revisit of something discussed a few years ago  determine if a
number contained in an 8 bit register is divisible by 3.
The background is: I've got a timebase with a 20 second period as part of a
60 minute timer. Due to changing client requirements, I needed to come up
with a 1 minute timer.
The obvious technique was to simply use 2 bits in a register configured as
a divide by 3 counter.
Simple code to do this:
;generate 1 min tick. uses upper 2 bits of FLAG3 as divide by 3 counter
movlw b'01000000'
addwf FLAG3,F
btfsc FLAG3,7 ;count seq: 00, 01, 10
goto Tic1MinExit
addwf FLAG3,F ;inc cntr from 10 to 11: turns 4/ into /3
bsf _T1MIN ;1 min flag
Tic1MinExit
But at the time that I was coding that project, RAM was tight (the target
was a 16c71 with only 35 bytes of RAM. I posed the question to the list 
Andy Warren and John Payson came to the rescue with one of those magical
little snippets.
I'm bringing this up because I am making more changes to that project. In
doing so, I saw a way to shave 1 instruction / cycle from that magical
little snippet.
;determine if # is evenly divisible by 3. Enters with # in TMP, exits with
TMP trashed
;Concept by John Payson, this version by Jophn Payson & Dwayne Reid
swapf TMP,w ;split #, add 2 halves, keep MSN
addwf TMP,f ;Note [MSN of ADRES] % 3 == old ADRES % 3
rrf TMP,w ;We want to add what are now upper and lower
rlf TMP,f ; two bits of MSN; 00 or 11 would be good.
addwf TMP,w ;If bits 5&6 are 1, # is divisible by 3
addlw b'00100000' ;treat bits 5&6 as 2 bit #, increment
btfss TMP,6 ;if bit 6 is 0, number is divisible by 3
bsf _T1MIN ;1 minute flag
The following is another of Scott Dattalo's excellent explanations of how
this snippet works:
<copy starts>
Dwayne Reid wrote:
> I am looking for a way to determine if a byte value is divisible by 3 and
> was about to appeal for help when I remembered that Andy Warren had started
> a discussion on that very topic about a year ago. I went looking in my mail
> archives and found something that looked quite good written by John Payson.
> I tried the shorter of the 2 routines that John posted and found problems
> with it. The longer (but faster) routine worked just fine. I spent a
> couple of hours with the problem routine and made changes which seem to work
> just fine.
I was fascinated with John's algorithm when he first posted it.
However, I did not take the time until last weekend to really understand
how it works. Since there is some interesting number theory, algorithm
analysis, and PIC code, I think there may be several of you who are
interested in the results.
John's "divisiblebythree" algorithm plus Dwayne's modifications is
very similar to the "castingoutnines" algorithm. The "castingout
nines" algorithm tests for whether a number is divisible by 9 by
summing up the individual (base10) digits of the number and checking
whether the sum is divisible by 9. For example, 2+3+4=9 is divisible
by 9 so we know that 234 is too (and so is 243,342,324,423,432).
A "castingoutthrees" algorithm in base4 is conceptually identical
to the "castingoutnines" in base10. For example, if we had 1221 in
base4 we know it's divisible by 3 since 1+2+2+1 = 6 is divisible by 3.
Here's the "proof". A base4 number can be written as:
____
\
N = /___ a_i * 4^i
where the a_i's are the base4 digits (0,1,2,3) of the number.
____
\
N = /___ (a_i * (4^i  1) + a_i )
If N is divisible by three, then N mod 3 is equal to 0. So take the
'mod 3' of each side:
____
\
N mod 3 = /___ (((a_i * (4^i  1)) mod 3) + (a_i mod 3))
Two observations:
a) 4^i  1 is divisible by 3. This can be seen by rewriting
4^i1 = 3*4^(i1) + 3*4^(i2) + ... + 3*4^0
Since each term in the sum is divisible by three, then the sum
is divisible by three too.
b) a_i mod 3 = a_i or 0 (because a_i = 0,1,2,3). Since we are looking
for the result of N mod 3 = 0, we can replace a_i mod 3 with a_i.
Combining these two observations:
____
\
N mod 3= /___ a_i (mod 3)
If this sum is greater than 3, then we can repeat the algorithm.
PDB3WRM algorithm:
Now we are ready to look at John's "dividebythree" PIC algorithm.
For brevity, let's write the input Number as a generic 4digit
base4 number:
Number = a*64 + b*16 + c*4 + d
Here's John's routine with Dwayne's modifications. I've added the
details
of how the routine modifies Number:
> swapf Number,w ; split #, add 2 halves, keep Most Sig
Nybble
W = c*64 + d*16 + a*4 + b
> addwf Number,f ; Note [MSN of Number] % 3 == old Number % 3
Number = (a+c)*64 + (b+d)*16 + (a+c)*4 + (b+d)
> rrf Number,w ; We want to add what are now upper and
lower
W = (a+c)*32 + (b+d)*8 + (a+c)*2 + (b+d)>>1
carry = (b+d)&1 ;i.e. lsb of the sum of b and d is in the carry
> rlf Number,f ; two bits of MSN; 00 or 11 would be good.
Number = (a+c)*128 + (b+d)*32 + (a+c)*8 + (b+d)*2 + (b+d)&1
> addwf Number,w ; If bits 6&7 are 1, # is divisible by 3
W = (a+c)*128 + (a+b+c+d)*32 + (a+b+c+d)*8 + (a+b+c+d)*2 +
(b+d)>>1 + (b+d)&1
> addlw b'00100000' ; treat bits 6&7 as 2 bit #, increment
> andlw b'01000000'
> skpz
> retlw 0 ; Return "nope"
> retlw 1 ; Return "yep"
In the last equation it can be seen that the 4 digits are added
together.
Unfortunately, there's complicated interaction between the sums.
Furthermore
there's that annoying business with b and d at the end. However after
closer inspection, it can be shown that there are only 14 unique cases
that
need to be analyzed. 13 cases are due to the sum of the digits ranging
from
0 to 12 (the numbers are in binary):
(a+b+c+d)  (a+b+c+d)*32 + (a+b+c+d)*8 + (a+b+c+d)*2
+
==> 0000  00000000
0001  00101010
0010  01010100
==> 0011  01111110
0100  10101000
0101  11010010
==> 0110  11111100
0111  00100110
1000  01010000
==> 1001  01111010
1010  10100100
1011  11001110
==> 1100  11111000
All rows marked with '==>' correspond to a sum of base4 digits that
is divisible by three. The key thing to note is that bits 5 & 6 are
the same value in the second column for those numbers divisible by 3.
The last four (now 3) lines of the PIC program cleverly detect this.
We have one more case to consider that concerns the expression
(b+d)>>1 + (b+d)&1
that the PIC algorithm adds to the second column of data in the table.
This expression evaluates to either 0,1,2, or 3. Adding these numbers
to the second column of data only affects bits 5 & 6 for the case
when the sum of the digits is 0011. And even there it has the effect of
changing those bits from highs to lows. So the condition that "bits 5
& 6 are the same" is unchanged.
Oh btw, the state of the carry bit upon entry has no effect on the
result.
One more observation. The expression in the second column of the table
can be rewritten:
(a+b+c+d)*32 + (a+b+c+d)*8 + (a+b+c+d)*2 = (a+b+c+d)*42
And the last four (3) steps in the program check bits 5&6 for mod 3'ness.
This can be expressed like so:
Number mod 3 = ((a+b+c+d)*21)/16 mod 3
where Number = a*64+b*16+c*4+d
Which I guess is a concise way of stating the "Paysondivisibleby3
withtheReidModification" or PDB3WRM algorithm.
<end of copy>
I hope this is usable for someone else.
dwayne
Dwayne Reid <dwaynerKILLspamplanet.eon.net>
Trinity Electronics Systems Ltd Edmonton, AB, CANADA
(780) 4893199 voice (780) 4876397 fax
Celebrating 17 years of Engineering Innovation (1984  2001)
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