Searching \ for '[PIC] PCB? and Good Posts!' in subject line. ()
Make payments with PayPal - it's fast, free and secure! Help us get a faster server
FAQ page: www.piclist.com/techref/pcbs.htm?key=pcb
Search entire site for: 'PCB? and Good Posts!'.

Exact match. Not showing close matches.
PICList Thread
'[PIC] PCB? and Good Posts!'
2005\05\08@142715 by Alison Lewis

picon face
part 1 666 bytes content-type:text/plain; charset=us-asciiGreat posts this past week, I've learned alot;
especially about using C. This list is awesome.

I have a basice PCB layout, 5 (Analog) inputs/5
(digital)outputs. I wanted to post it to the board and
see if it looks right, also...if there is something
wrong I can place the whole PCB and corresponding
information out there for other people to make boards.

What may seem unusual in the board are TWO Caps, one
for the initial input power and one for 5V after the
regulator. (anyone else do this?)

Cheers - AL

__________________________________________________
Do You Yahoo!?
Tired of spam?  Yahoo! Mail has the best spam protection around
http://mail.yahoo.com

part 2 19006 bytes content-type:image/gif; name="Pic_5-5_PCB.gif" (decode)


part 3 35 bytes content-type:text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
(decoded 7bit)

2005\05\08@153027 by Josh Koffman

face picon face
Ok, here are my comments. Please note, they may be wrong.

1. You have some extra stuff I don't understand on the board. There is
a little square of holes with an extra hole on top (total 5) between
R5 and INPUT. There is also an extra hole above S1

2. The trace between pin 8 and pin 9 might prove problematic. This
seems to be a problem all over your board. Personally, I would try to
route in orthagonal lines, plus 45 degree lines. Asthetically I find
differing angles to be less visually pleasing. That said, The trace
between 8 and 9 might cause you problems as it isn't straight, and you
may find it too close at one side.

3. You may want to fatten up your traces a bit. Beefier traces will be
easier to etch if you're making the board at home. Your board doesn't
seem that complex, so you should have the room for them.

4. You may want to put an in circuit programming header on the board.
Again, you have spare room, and ICSP is much faster than having to pop
the chip out each time you wish to reprogram.

5. The +V trace that runs by the cathode of the LED looks awfully
close from my view. Couldn't hurt to move it away slightly.

That's about it for me, I'm sure others will comment as well.

Josh
--
A common mistake that people make when trying to design something
completely foolproof is to underestimate the ingenuity of complete
fools.
       -Douglas Adams

On 5/8/05, Alison Lewis <spam_OUTlewischickenTakeThisOuTspamyahoo.com> wrote:
> I have a basice PCB layout, 5 (Analog) inputs/5
> (digital)outputs. I wanted to post it to the board and
> see if it looks right, also...if there is something
> wrong I can place the whole PCB and corresponding
> information out there for other people to make boards.

2005\05\08@154629 by phil B

picon face
Is this a double sided board?

I'd add a bypass cap (100nf) between Vcc and Vss pins
of the 876.  

I often use a 100nf cap between the output of the
regulator and ground.  Supposedly prevents
oscillation.  check the datasheet for your regulator.

I assume x1 is a resonator - probably a good idea to
not run any other traces near it.  I always try to get
as much ground copper around the crystal/resonator
pins.

You could probably make this a single sided board.

What design software are you using?

--- Alison Lewis <.....lewischickenKILLspamspam@spam@yahoo.com> wrote:

{Quote hidden}

> http://mail.yahoo.com > --

2005\05\08@171316 by Denny Esterline

picon face
part 1 24026 bytes content-type:multipart/related; (decoded quoted-printable)

This is a multi-part message in MIME format.

------ 2005\05\08@174425 by Denny Esterline
picon face
part 1 1523 bytes content-type:text/plain; (decoded 7bit)

Peculiar, not sure if it's just me or if others see it too, but my last post
returned to me as an attachment... Hmm, let's try again.

What tool are you using to create this?
Are you having the board made professionally or are you etching it yourself?
(plated through holes?)

Personally I don't like the look of traces at random angles, and it can lead
to uncertainties for high frequency work.
I'll have bad dreams about your ground traces. Long, winding and skinny with
analog references on the far end makes for a bad day. Running traces between
IC pins isn't all bad, but avoid it if you can, especially if you're making
the board yourself. Whenever possible line up all the parts in strait rows
(unlike R5-R9), it makes the board look a lot more professional.

Given a similar problem, This is what I might have created:

(red=top, blue=bottom) I'm sure I don't have the same libraries as you, but
I think you'll get the general idea. Notice the power and ground traces are
heavier, and shorter where practical.

I also notice there's a few things I would probably add. Mounting holes?
0.1uF bypass cap near the PIC? Connector or at least pads for ICSP, or
serial port access?

Good luck, let us know how it turns out.
-Denny

----- Original Message -----
From: "Denny Esterline" <firmwarespamKILLspamtds.net>
To: "Microcontroller discussion list - Public." <.....piclistKILLspamspam.....mit.edu>
Sent: Sunday, May 08, 2005 5:17 PM
Subject: Re: [PIC] PCB? and Good Posts!


> --

2005\05\08@175041 by Spehro Pefhany

picon face
At 11:27 AM 5/8/2005 -0700, you wrote:
>Great posts this past week, I've learned alot;
>especially about using C. This list is awesome.
>
>I have a basice PCB layout, 5 (Analog) inputs/5
>(digital)outputs. I wanted to post it to the board and
>see if it looks right, also...if there is something
>wrong I can place the whole PCB and corresponding
>information out there for other people to make boards.
>
>What may seem unusual in the board are TWO Caps, one
>for the initial input power and one for 5V after the
>regulator. (anyone else do this?)
>
>Cheers - AL

The input capacitor on the 5V regulator is a good idea.
The large output cap may or may not be required for stability,
depending on the regulator you use. You need a bypass close to the
PIC 0.01uF to 1uF ceramic will do it (0.1uF is commonly used)

Why is the 25uF high voltage cap larger than the 10uF low voltage cap?

Don't connect the resonator ground trace to the connector, run it back
separately to Vss on the chip.

The LED is backwards.

Try to increase the size of your pads and traces (especially on things
like the switch), and route traces between IC pins straight to maximize
copper and clearances. Are you sure the switch holes are big enough?

That's all I see with a quick glance. I didn't try to figure out your
battery and other connectors. Your inputs have no added ESD protection.

Best regards,


Spehro Pefhany --"it's the network..."            "The Journey is the reward"
EraseMEspeffspam_OUTspamTakeThisOuTinterlog.com             Info for manufacturers: http://www.trexon.com
Embedded software/hardware/analog  Info for designers:  http://www.speff.com




2005\05\08@190924 by olin_piclist

face picon face
Denny Esterline wrote:
>> Peculiar, not sure if it's just me or if others see it too, but my
>> last post returned to me as an attachment... Hmm, let's try again.

I got an empty message from you, so it probably did have the text as an
attachment.  This time the message came thru fine, but when I did a reply I
got two levels of quoting (>>) as you can see above instead of one.
Strange.

>> Personally I don't like the look of traces at random angles, and it
>> can lead to uncertainties for high frequency work.

The electrons don't care.  For high frequency work the straightest and
shortest paths are best.  These are often not at nice axis aligned angles.

>> Given a similar problem, This is what I might have created:
>>
>> (red=top, blue=bottom) I'm sure I don't have the same libraries as
>> you, but I think you'll get the general idea. Notice the power and
>> ground traces are heavier, and shorter where practical.

For a two layer thru hole board, I would have set up the bottom layer as the
primary interconnect, and the top layer as a pseudo ground plane.  It
wouldn't be a real ground plane since some traces will likely need to be
routed there, but the intent would be to make those traces short and
isolated.  Small islands in a ground plane don't matter much.  Just be
careful that a bunch of small traces don't clump together to make a big hole
in the ground plane.

I have a standard setup for such boards.  I define the pseudo ground plane
in Eagle as a polygon, and set the cost for routing in that layer very high.
Initially the cost will be low to guarantee a solution, but this is cranked
up early in the optimize passes.  After 8 optimize passes you usually get a
nice board.  Your board isn't very complex, and I expect this technique
would work very well on it.

>> I also notice there's a few things I would probably add. Mounting
>> holes?

Or areas in the corners for rubber feet.  For lots of prototype boards I
never intend to put them into a case, just stick rubber feet in each of the
corners.

Another few niceties I like to add:

1 - Put the customer-visible name of the product on the silkscreen, company
name, and the date.  For example, the current production version of the
ProProg has:

 Embed Inc
 ProProg
 Version 2
 2 Aug 2004

in the lower left corner.  If you're making boards for yourself, similar
information is still useful.  Three years and 2 revs later it won't be as
obvious as you think to remember which board is which.

2 - Internal name or part number on the top copper along the edge somewhere.
This is the same name I use for the project name in Eagle and that all the
files for this project start with.  For example the ProProg has "PPRG2" in
copper near the lower middle.

3 - Take the trouble to clean up the silkscreen after placement and routing.
Part designators at all angles, under parts, and over vias is a pain to use
later and makes it look amateurish.  Yes, this takes a little work, but
doing it right usually does.


*****************************************************************
Embed Inc, embedded system specialists in Littleton Massachusetts
(978) 742-9014, http://www.embedinc.com

2005\05\09@055532 by Howard Winter

face
flavicon
picon face
Alison,

On Sun, 8 May 2005 11:27:14 -0700 (PDT), Alison Lewis wrote:

>...<
> What may seem unusual in the board are TWO Caps, one
> for the initial input power and one for 5V after the
> regulator. (anyone else do this?)

Yes, but I'm a bit confused as to the sizes of them - C1 is a larger value than C2, and is upstream of the
regulator so should be at least the same voltage rating, if not higher, but you're showing it physically
smaller - this is unexpected, at least!  :-)

Further, you have these two "reservoir" capacitors (to provide/absorb energy to smooth over varying
line/load), but no decoupling capacitors to stop oscillation.  As someone else said, you really need 0.1uF
ceramics across the 0V and power close to the regulator and close to the PIC.

Since you have a 5V reservoir capacitor, you should also have a diode across the In and Out of the regulator
(+ve on the In side), so that if the power drops and the input capacitor discharges before the output one,
that the voltage on the regulator's Out pin doesn't go above that on the In pin (otherwise the regulator can
be damaged).  In fact it can still be 1 diode-drop (0.6V) above it, but that's OK!

I don't like the 0V trace that connects to your Input header going "through" the resonator's centre pin -
varying current in that trace might upset the PIC oscillator and gain or lose you clock cycles (or even stop
the oscillator all together).  Better to run it separately if at all possible.

I don't understand what B1 and B2 are - looking again I suspect they are probably the power-in points, and I
assume they will have wires soldered in directly - it's much neater to have these together if possible.  And
please label them - you know what they are now, but when you get the soldering-iron out you don't want to have
to deduce which is which from following the traces  :-)

Your "Extra Inputs" are actually 0V and 5V!

There are 4 orphaned holes on the left below the Input header and 6 between C2 and the PIC, for no obvious
reason.

D6 (what happened to D1 to 5? :-) is awfully close to the PIC - if you are going to use a socket for the
latter, a bit more space would be handy.

I notice a lot of unconnected pins on the PIC - make sure you set these to output in your software, as
unconnected inputs can wreak havoc.

There you go, my random thoughts - have fun!  :-)

Cheers,




Howard Winter
St.Albans, England


2005\05\09@060024 by Howard Winter
face
flavicon
picon face
Denny,

On Sun, 8 May 2005 17:48:23 -0400, Denny Esterline wrote:

>...<
> Given a similar problem, This is what I might have created:
>
> (red=top, blue=bottom) I'm sure I don't have the same libraries as you, but
> I think you'll get the general idea. Notice the power and ground traces are
> heavier, and shorter where practical.

...and on the input side, disconnected!  :-)

Cheers,


Howard Winter
St.Albans, England


2005\05\09@065949 by Howard Winter

face
flavicon
picon face
Alison,

Having just had another look at your PCB layout, I see that B2 is "Coin Cell Holder" (when all else fails,
read the instructions! :-)  but it seems to have only a 0V connection.  

This is a Good Thing because if you were planning to connect a coin cell (presumably 3.2V lithium such as a
CR2032) across 0 and 5V, *don't do it*!

The most likely result would be a loud bang with toxic chemicals being sprayed around... lithium cells can
react really badly if abused, and over-volting them is serious abuse.

Of course this may be fallout from an earlier design (like the missing D1-D5) in which case please ignore me
:-)

Cheers,


Howard Winter
St.Albans, England


2005\05\09@071649 by Ake Hedman

flavicon
face
>I define the pseudo ground plane
>in Eagle as a polygon, and set the cost for routing in that layer very high.

How is this done exactly? I have never understood how a top layer with lots of copper ground plane around a few traces are done in eagle.

/Ake

Olin Lathrop wrote:

{Quote hidden}

--  ---
Ake Hedman (YAP - Yet Another Programmer)
eurosource, Brattbergavägen 17, 820 50 LOS, Sweden
Phone: (46) 657 413430 Cellular: (46) 73 84 84 102
Company home: http://www.eurosource.se      Kryddor/Te/Kaffe: http://www.brattberg.com
Personal homepage: http://www.eurosource.se/akhe
Automated home: http://www.vscp.org

2005\05\09@072346 by olin_piclist

face picon face
> Having just had another look at your PCB layout, I see that B2 is
> "Coin Cell Holder" (when all else fails, read the instructions! :-)
> but it seems to have only a 0V connection.

I've seen several people respond here with advice about the circuit as
apposed to the board.  If you want people to comment on the circuit, you
should post a schematic.


*****************************************************************
Embed Inc, embedded system specialists in Littleton Massachusetts
(978) 742-9014, http://www.embedinc.com

2005\05\09@072732 by olin_piclist

face picon face
Ake Hedman wrote:
>> I define the pseudo ground plane
>> in Eagle as a polygon, and set the cost for routing in that layer
>> very high.
>
> How is this done exactly? I have never understood how a top layer with
> lots of copper ground plane around a few traces are done in eagle.

If you want an entire inner layer to be a ground plane (or any other
signal), name the layer $<signal name>.  If you want a plane on one of the
outer layers, or don't want the entire layer to be the plane, then you have
to use a polygon.

In the board editor, draw a polygon in the desired layer and give it the
name of the signal.  There are a few more details which you can see by doing
HELP POLY.


*****************************************************************
Embed Inc, embedded system specialists in Littleton Massachusetts
(978) 742-9014, http://www.embedinc.com

2005\05\09@114725 by William Chops Westfield

face picon face
On May 9, 2005, at 4:27 AM, Olin Lathrop wrote:

> In the board editor, draw a polygon in the desired layer and give it
> the
> name of the signal.

This is one of the few times in eagle that I revert to their command
line rather than the GUI.  I'll type "poly gnd" in the cli window, and
then draw a big rectangle that usually extends well outside of the
dimension
layer (makes it easier to find later.)  Then you click the ratsnest
button
to get it do calculate the polygon/trace interaction.

Make sure you have polygon "isolate" parameters set as you desire, or
it will
probably end up using some tiny value from the design rules...

BillW

2005\05\09@145239 by Alison Lewis

picon face
There were a lot of good things you all pointed out
(like forgetting to lable 5V on the coin cell) and I
made some updates.

I use ExpressPCB to make the diagrams and circuits
because its free and easy.

"I've seen several people respond here with advice
about the circuit as apposed to the board.  If you
want people to comment on the circuit, you should post
a schematic."

beard.dialnsa.edu/~lewisa/blogs/DMSpring2005/PIC16F_5in-5out--SCHEMATIC.gif
(I've been using this set up with various
modifications for a year with no problems at all...)

NEW PCB Layout with proper pin names:
http://beard.dialnsa.edu/~lewisa/blogs/DMSpring2005/PIC16F_5in-5out--PCB.gif

----------
I tend to find it easier to set up a PCB than do a
diagram because I can see the connections. It would be
great if there was a program that made circuit
diagrams from PCBs.

__________________________________________________
Do You Yahoo!?
Tired of spam?  Yahoo! Mail has the best spam protection around
http://mail.yahoo.com

2005\05\09@153155 by Spehro Pefhany

picon face
At 11:52 AM 5/9/2005 -0700, you wrote:
>There were a lot of good things you all pointed out
>(like forgetting to lable 5V on the coin cell) and I
>made some updates.
>
>I use ExpressPCB to make the diagrams and circuits
>because its free and easy.
>
>"I've seen several people respond here with advice
>about the circuit as apposed to the board.  If you
>want people to comment on the circuit, you should post
>a schematic."
>
>beard.dialnsa.edu/~lewisa/blogs/DMSpring2005/PIC16F_5in-5out--SCHEMATIC.gif
>(I've been using this set up with various
>modifications for a year with no problems at all...)
>
>NEW PCB Layout with proper pin names:
>http://beard.dialnsa.edu/~lewisa/blogs/DMSpring2005/PIC16F_5in-5out--PCB.gif

Note that you've got the inputs all shorted together in both the
schematic and on the PCB.


>I tend to find it easier to set up a PCB than do a
>diagram because I can see the connections. It would be
>great if there was a program that made circuit
>diagrams from PCBs.


Spehro Pefhany --"it's the network..."            "The Journey is the reward"
speffspamspam_OUTinterlog.com             Info for manufacturers: http://www.trexon.com
Embedded software/hardware/analog  Info for designers:  http://www.speff.com




2005\05\09@162604 by phil B

picon face
um, you say that it works fine but I think your
schematic has a problem with analog input.  Do you
really want to tie the inputs to +5V?

Also, your 2 battery setup looks odd to me - I would
try to have at least 7V input to the 7805, more for
higher current applications.  

Finally, its always a good idea to use a bypass cap
(.1uF) between the power and ground pins of the PIC -
it will improve noise immunity.

On your layout, r12 being so close to the resonator
could be a source of problems for RA4 input (though
with the current schematic, I bet its a solid +5V).
its always a good idea to keep your analog inputs away
from other signal sources.  Here is one apnote that
discusses the layout issues.  Its aimed at 12 bit ADCs
but the rules apply for 10 bit as well.
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/AppNotes/00688b.pdf

Phil

--- Alison Lewis <@spam@lewischickenKILLspamspamyahoo.com> wrote:
{Quote hidden}

beard.dialnsa.edu/~lewisa/blogs/DMSpring2005/PIC16F_5in-5out--SCHEMATIC.gif
> (I've been using this set up with various
> modifications for a year with no problems at all...)
>
> NEW PCB Layout with proper pin names:
>
beard.dialnsa.edu/~lewisa/blogs/DMSpring2005/PIC16F_5in-5out--PCB.gif
{Quote hidden}

> --

2005\05\09@174144 by olin_piclist

face picon face
Alison Lewis wrote:
> I tend to find it easier to set up a PCB than do a
> diagram because I can see the connections. It would be
> great if there was a program that made circuit
> diagrams from PCBs.

That's like writing in assembler and asking for a program to convert it to
C.  Think of the schematic (I assmume that's what you mean by "diagram"?) as
the source code.  It defines what is supposed to be connected to what in an
easily understandable language.  The Gerber files are the compiled result
after you've added placement information.  Proper packages like Eagle won't
let the routing deviate from the connections defined in the schematic.  If
you want to "see" the connections, look at the schematic where they are a
lot more understandable.


*****************************************************************
Embed Inc, embedded system specialists in Littleton Massachusetts
(978) 742-9014, http://www.embedinc.com

2005\05\10@011748 by William Chops Westfield

face picon face
>> It would be great if there was a program that made circuit
>> diagrams from PCBs.
>>
Well, it's certainly possible to make yourself a parts library where the
schematics symbols for chips look like DIPs, for instance.  You could
even
get away with just having one symbol per package size, although that
would
make it difficult to understand and nearly impossible to update to
different
pinouts of the same sort of logic circuit (going from 74240 to 74540,
for instance.)

BillW

2005\05\10@031551 by William Chops Westfield

face picon face

--Apple-Mail-2--36803828
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
Content-Type: text/plain;
       charset=US-ASCII;
       delsp=yes;
       format=flowed

> http://beard.dialnsa.edu/~lewisa/blogs/DMSpring2005/PIC16F_5in-5out--
> SCHEMATIC.gif
> http://beard.dialnsa.edu/~lewisa/blogs/DMSpring2005/PIC16F_5in-5out--
> PCB.gif
>
Others have mentioned problems:

1) inputs shorted to 5v.
2) no bypass caps
3) traces too narrow.
4) 6V input to vreg is too low

here are a couple more:

5) The "big" cap should be at the input end of the regulator, or you
   risk reverse-biasing it during powerdown, which is a bad thing.
6) schematics shows pin13 unconnected, but PCB has it connected.
7) there's no need for this to be a two-sided PCB, I think.

I came up with something like this, assuming the input resistors are
supposed to be pullups.  The connectors have moved, which might be bad.


--Apple-Mail-2--36803828
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Type: image/png;
       x-unix-mode=0644;
       name="pic65i5o.png"
Content-Disposition: inline;
       filename=pic65i5o.png
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--Apple-Mail-2--36803828
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

2005\05\10@121903 by Peter

picon face


> That's like writing in assembler and asking for a program to convert it to
> C.  Think of the schematic (I assmume that's what you mean by "diagram"?) as

You are not going to believe this, but that is in fact done sometimes.
The C compiler later optmises the code and makes it portable. It is one
of the faster ways to port a piece of assembler afaik (using many macros
for the assembler instructions).

Peter


2005\05\14@081345 by Hector Martin

flavicon
face
RA4 isn't an analog pin, is it? RA5 is, though.

And, as others have pointed out, they are all shorted to +5V.
--
Hector Martin (KILLspamhectorKILLspamspammarcansoft.com)
Public Key: http://www.marcansoft.com/hector.asc

2005\05\14@091633 by Dave Turner

picon face
Well, not sure if it's just me, but aren't the inputs connected
through a resistor to ground, and the actual input is connected to the
chip?

On 5/14/05, Hector Martin <RemoveMEhectorTakeThisOuTspammarcansoft.com> wrote:
> RA4 isn't an analog pin, is it? RA5 is, though.
>
> And, as others have pointed out, they are all shorted to +5V.
> --
> Hector Martin (spamBeGonehectorspamBeGonespammarcansoft.com)
> Public Key: http://www.marcansoft.com/hector.asc
>
> -

2005\05\14@111904 by Hector Martin

flavicon
face
Dave Turner wrote:
> Well, not sure if it's just me, but aren't the inputs connected
> through a resistor to ground, and the actual input is connected to the
> chip?
>

Look at the schematic... even if the PCB is OK,the schematic is most
definitely messed up.


--
Hector Martin (TakeThisOuThectorEraseMEspamspam_OUTmarcansoft.com)
Public Key: http://www.marcansoft.com/hector.asc

2005\05\14@172009 by William Chops Westfield

face picon face
On May 14, 2005, at 8:19 AM, Hector Martin wrote:

> Look at the schematic... even if the PCB is OK,the schematic is most
> definitely messed up.
>
Thus far, this has been an exercise in PCB design preferences and (to a
lesser
extent) schematic entry, and stuff like that.  At least, that's how
I've been
treating it.  It's been fun, but before Alison goes off and has some
boards
made up, it might be useful to go back and talk about the DESIGN and
what it
is supposed to accomplish.

For instance, the original email header mentioned analog inputs.  But
they
apparently have pullup (or pulldown) resistors.  Any number of people
have
noticed that at least some of the layouts had these connected
incorrectly
for pullup resistors, but no one has mentioned yet that it's pretty
uncommon
to have ANY pullup resistors on analog inputs in the first place.  
Pulldowns
might be more common, but still not really likely, IMO.  In my
"improved" PCB
design, I made assumptions without checking whether they were correct
for the
design (assuming that it was primarily a pcb design excercise...)
On the other hand, it's always easy to leave components OFF of a PCB.  
Adding
components is messier...

BillW

2005\05\17@012100 by William Chops Westfield

face picon face
On May 14, 2005, at 2:20 PM, William Chops Westfield wrote:

> For instance, the original email header mentioned analog inputs.  But
> they
> apparently have pullup (or pulldown) resistors.  Any number of people
> have
> noticed that at least some of the layouts had these connected
> incorrectly
> for pullup resistors, but no one has mentioned yet that it's pretty
> uncommon
> to have ANY pullup resistors on analog inputs in the first place.  
> Pulldowns
> might be more common, but still not really likely, IMO.

Hmm.  If the pullup resistors are replaced by a resistor SIP, the SIP is
easily reversed to provide either pullup or pulldown capability (or it
can be left off entirely.)  And it's pretty easy to create a "SIP" from
discreet resistors, too...

BillW

More... (looser matching)
- Last day of these posts
- In 2005 , 2006 only
- Today
- New search...