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'[OT]:: Sunlight exposure reduces breast cancer ris'
|A somewhat unexpected conclusion about sunlight exposure and
This study supports the hypothesis that sunlight
reduces risk of advanced breast cancer among women
with light skin pigmentation.
Something that most light skinned women should be aware of.
There are numerous apparently 'strange' health ideas
around - this one has a better pedigree than many.
American Journal of Epidemiology
Published online on October 12, 2007
Mechanism is thought to be (and may be) the increased
Vitamin D levels generated by sunlight exposure. While some
vitamin D is obtained from diet, about 90% of recommended
level is generated by sunlight exposure.
Guideline from the study: If you have a pale skin and a
somewhat suntanned forehead compared to the skin colouration
under your upper underarm then you are probably getting
Full text costs $.
American Journal of Epidemiology Advance Access published
online on October 12, 2007
American Journal of Epidemiology, doi:10.1093/aje/kwm259
American Journal of Epidemiology © The Author 2007.
Published by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public
Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Sun Exposure, Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms, and
Breast Cancer Risk in a Multiethnic Population
Esther M. John1,2, Gary G. Schwartz3, Jocelyn Koo1, Wei
Wang4 and Sue A. Ingles4
1 Northern California Cancer Center, Fremont, CA
2 Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford
University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA
3 Departments of Cancer Biology and Epidemiology and
Prevention, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC
4 Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of
Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
Correspondence to Dr. Esther M. John, Northern California
Cancer Center, 2201 Walnut Avenue, Suite 300, Fremont, CA
94538 (e-mail: nccc.org ). ejohn
Received for publication February 7, 2007. Accepted for
publication July 26, 2007.
Considerable evidence indicates that vitamin D may reduce
the risk of several cancers, including breast cancer. This
study examined associations of breast cancer with sun
exposure, the principal source of vitamin D, and vitamin D
receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms (FokI, TaqI, BglI) in a
population-based case-control study of Hispanic,
African-American, and non-Hispanic White women aged 35–79
years from the San Francisco Bay Area of California
(1995–2003). In-person interviews were obtained for 1,788
newly diagnosed cases and 2,129 controls. Skin pigmentation
measurements were taken on the upper underarm (a
sun-protected site that measures constitutive pigmentation)
and on the forehead (a sun-exposed site) using
reflectometry. Biospecimens were collected for a subset of
the study population (814 cases, 910 controls). A high sun
exposure index based on reflectometry was associated with
reduced risk of advanced breast cancer among women with
light constitutive skin pigmentation (odds ratio = 0.53, 95%
confidence interval: 0.31, 0.91). The association did not
vary with VDR genotype. No associations were found for women
with medium or dark pigmentation. Localized breast cancer
was not associated with sun exposure or VDR genotype. This
study supports the hypothesis that sunlight exposure reduces
risk of advanced breast cancer among women with light skin
African Americans; breast neoplasms; Hispanic Americans;
polymorphism, genetic; receptors, calcitrol; skin
pigmentation; sunlight; vitamin D
Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; VDR,
vitamin D receptor; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D
(calcidiol); 1,25(OH)2D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D
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