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'[EE] US wiring codes'
2006\06\07@190204 by Brent Brown

picon face
Hi,

Thought I would ask here for direction as there is so much knowledge on this list.

I potentially have a project on the drawing board that will be installed in houses in
the US. It will be mains powered (110VAC) and will, among other things, switch on a
fan with a relay (yes, there will be a PIC in there too!). I have some experience with
design of mains operated equipment, but need to know what's different for the US. I
am wondering about general requirements such as isolation and earthing, fusing,
wire colours, labelling, if the relay should be one pole or two, testing for compliance,
etc. My searches so far have led me to the National Electrical Code (NEC) and the
NEC handbook:-

www.nfpa.org/catalog/product.asp?category%5Fname=Top+Selling+Products
&pid=70SBS05&target%5Fpid=70SBS05&src%5Fpid=70HB05&link%5Ftype=up%5
Fsell&src=catalog

A little on the expensive side, but I imagine one or both of these books should
contain every thing I need to know? Comments appreciated.

Thanks, Brent.
--
Brent Brown, Electronic Design Solutions
16 English Street, St Andrews,
Hamilton 3200, New Zealand
Ph: +64 7 849 0069
Fax: +64 7 849 0071
Cell: 027 433 4069
eMail:  spam_OUTbrent.brownTakeThisOuTspamclear.net.nz


2006\06\07@194545 by Harold Hallikainen

face picon face
I think I'd look for the appropriate UL standard for the product. We do a
lot of UL508 stuff. Some of our stuff runs on external class 2 power
supplies, so isolation and safety is dealt with there. Other stuff runs on
a standard 120VAC 60Hz outlet. On one of our products, we have a 15A
inlet. All internal wiring is rated for 15A, so no main fuse or circuit
breaker is required. We do have circuit breakers for each of our outputs
to protect the triacs (this is a theatrical dimmer). We also have a PTC
thermistor to protect the power transformer from overcurrent. On single
phase loads (120VAC), you only need to switch and fuse the hot side, not
the neutral, since a short to ground on the neutral does not create a fire
hazard. Wire colors are generally black for hot, white for neutral, and
green for safety ground. I believe international colors can also be used
(brown for hot, blue for neutral, green/yello for safety ground).

Harold


--
FCC Rules Updated Daily at http://www.hallikainen.com - Advertising
opportunities available!

2006\06\07@221334 by Xiaofan Chen

face picon face
On 6/8/06, Brent Brown <.....brent.brownKILLspamspam@spam@clear.net.nz> wrote:

> I am wondering about general requirements such as isolation and
> earthing, fusing, wire colours, labelling, if the relay should be one
> pole or two, testing for compliance, etc. My searches so far have
> led me to the National Electrical Code (NEC) and the
> NEC handbook:-
>

If you want to get your product certified, you will have to work with
a UL engineer. You may want to get a consultant to make things
easier.

UL508 is the general standard covering industrial control equipment.
UL840 and UL1097 (for double insulation) might be useful to address
the isolation requirement.

Regards,
Xiaofan

2006\06\08@000044 by Rich Graziano

picon face
You might also look into the regs for machine wiring, like NFPA.  I Have
NFPA 79 but I am sure there is a newer version.  That was for the 90's.
But, it's a thought.
regards
Rich
{Original Message removed}

2006\06\08@042434 by Alan B. Pearce

face picon face
>I believe international colors can also be used
>(brown for hot, blue for neutral, green/yello for safety ground).

Note that these are now changed in Europe. Dunno why, that set of colours
made sense.

2006\06\08@075808 by Steven Howes

picon face
>Note that these are now changed in Europe. Dunno why, that set of
colours
>made sense.

Its changed?

2006\06\08@183857 by Rich Graziano

picon face
I could be wrong, but I believe that beginning with the ISO US and Europe
have been moving toward a common set of standards.  It certainly has not yet
been achieved yet but I believe it is moving in that direction, including
color coding.  And, there is acceptance in most European Countries of US
products that comply with he major US standards.

In Asian countries US patent law is being examined as China, for example,
produces a patent protection legal system  The world is moving closer
together on technology and manufacturing standards.

----- Original Message -----
From: "Steven Howes" <stevespamKILLspampoundbury.com>
To: "Microcontroller discussion list - Public." <.....piclistKILLspamspam.....mit.edu>
Sent: Thursday, June 08, 2006 7:58 AM
Subject: RE: [EE] US wiring codes


> >Note that these are now changed in Europe. Dunno why, that set of
> colours
>>made sense.
>
> Its changed?
>
> --

2006\06\08@184225 by Rich Graziano

picon face
Yes, that has become common practice.  We use international standards in all
of our work.

----- Original Message -----
From: "Alan B. Pearce" <EraseMEA.B.Pearcespam_OUTspamTakeThisOuTrl.ac.uk>
To: "Microcontroller discussion list - Public." <piclistspamspam_OUTmit.edu>
Sent: Thursday, June 08, 2006 4:24 AM
Subject: Re: [EE] US wiring codes


> >I believe international colors can also be used
>>(brown for hot, blue for neutral, green/yello for safety ground).
>
> Note that these are now changed in Europe. Dunno why, that set of colours
> made sense.
>
> --

2006\06\13@131701 by alan smith

picon face
UL is a certified lab that is covered under the NRTL umbrella.  You can use any lab that is certified for that, we use TUV for ours.
 
 On the PCB, there are really only a few things to really watch for, mainly creepage and clearance on the board (both traces and components).  If you have both AC and DC on the same board, there are additional isolation requirements.  Make your life easier by not putting any DC traces near the AC section (running thru it on a different layer for example).  From a product side, there are limits on how big any holes can be in the enclosure, and how much energy can be on the outside...ie....plugs, LED's, etc.  Light pipes can be your friend here.
 
 There are consultants that specialize in this, and may be worth your while to purchase 8 to 10 hours and they will bascially get it ready to be certified.  But, always leave one dumb thing undone....something easy to fix...but still....not right.  That way the lab will say...oh we found this issue...fix it and your OK...else they will KEEP looking for something till they find it...and that might be a hard thing to fix.  Job justification I suppose....

Xiaofan Chen <@spam@xiaofancKILLspamspamgmail.com> wrote:
 On 6/8/06, Brent Brown
wrote:

> I am wondering about general requirements such as isolation and
> earthing, fusing, wire colours, labelling, if the relay should be one
> pole or two, testing for compliance, etc. My searches so far have
> led me to the National Electrical Code (NEC) and the
> NEC handbook:-
>

If you want to get your product certified, you will have to work with
a UL engineer. You may want to get a consultant to make things
easier.

UL508 is the general standard covering industrial control equipment.
UL840 and UL1097 (for double insulation) might be useful to address
the isolation requirement.

Regards,
Xiaofan

2006\06\13@131816 by alan smith

picon face
NFPA is the parent organization for NEC that genarates the spec's for the safety standards.

Rich Graziano <KILLspamrgrazia1KILLspamspamrochester.rr.com> wrote:  You might also look into the regs for machine wiring, like NFPA. I Have
NFPA 79 but I am sure there is a newer version. That was for the 90's.
But, it's a thought.
regards
Rich
{Original Message removed}

2006\06\13@133656 by David VanHorn

picon face
>
>
> There are consultants that specialize in this, and may be worth your while
> to purchase 8 to 10 hours and they will bascially get it ready to be
> certified.  But, always leave one dumb thing undone....something easy to
> fix...but still....not right.  That way the lab will say...oh we found this
> issue...fix it and your OK...else they will KEEP looking for something till
> they find it...and that might be a hard thing to fix.  Job justification I
> suppose....


In my experience, very sage advice.

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