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'[EE]: Lamp S-Curve Table'
2001\09\16@011721 by David Duffy

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I have asked this before (some time back) on the list but never
came up with a solution. What I need is a 256 byte table for a
s-curve to convert a (linear) dim level (0=off, 255=full) into a value
to use as a phase control variable in my lamp dimmer. Harold H
posted a formula for it a while back but it goes way over my
head I'm afraid. I searched the archives but there's no straight
forward answer in there. A Google search did not reveal anything
useful either. I was hoping that a Piclister had done this before &
is willing to post it. I only need the table - not the phase control
code any anything else. The rest of my code works fine.  :-)
Thanks...

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2001\09\16@043018 by Jinx

face picon face
I'm working on a dimmer and wondered like you have about
practical dimming increments. What I thought you could do is
use a display in conjuction with the dimming phase-changing
process so as to compare the phase angle with the brightness
of the bulb. I suspect this may be necessary when using a
variety of bulbs - you might not be able to guarantee that a
table designed for one type of bulb is applicable to another

Just a thought, no practical experience to back it up with

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2001\09\16@072540 by David Duffy

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I asked about an s-curve table for lamp dimming & Jinx wrote:
>I'm working on a dimmer and wondered like you have about
>practical dimming increments.

This sort of table must have been required before by someone.
Maybe they're all commercial designs and can't release them.
(which I completely understand BTW, I've had to do the same)

>What I thought you could do is
>use a display in conjuction with the dimming phase-changing
>process so as to compare the phase angle with the brightness
>of the bulb. I suspect this may be necessary when using a
>variety of bulbs - you might not be able to guarantee that a
>table designed for one type of bulb is applicable to another

Maybe the dimmer can have multiple (selectable) tables. Then
you could tell the dimmer which channels to use which table.
Hmm... that sounds like a good idea actually. I started with a
straight linear relationship but the extremes are out of whack.
I wonder if someone on an Atmel or Motorola list has done one
that they can share? The lamps I want to use are mostly 100W
240V halogen PAR30 types. Maybe some GLS lamps too.

My dimmer has a minimum level for lamp pre-heat (hopefully to
extend lamp life when used as a chaser) and maximum level,
settable for each output channel. I did this so outputs that drive
things other than lamps don't have a residual voltage on them
when they're supposed to be off !  Any other ideas welcome.
Regards...
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U8, 9-11 Trade St, Cleveland 4163 Australia
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2001\09\16@101040 by Steven Bakaletz

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> I have asked this before (some time back) on the list but never
> came up with a solution. What I need is a 256 byte table for a
> s-curve to convert a (linear) dim level (0=off, 255=full) into a value
> to use as a phase control variable in my lamp dimmer. Harold H
> posted a formula for it a while back but it goes way over my
> head I'm afraid. I searched the archives but there's no straight
> forward answer in there. A Google search did not reveal anything
> useful either. I was hoping that a Piclister had done this before &
> is willing to post it. I only need the table - not the phase control
> code any anything else. The rest of my code works fine.  :-)
> Thanks...


It seems like your going through a lot of work for a little return.
I doubt if you could perceive the difference between
50%, 50.5% & 51% levels.

When I built a dimmer I determined the minium delay from zero crossing to
get max bulb brightness, then the maximum delay to get the lowest usable
bulb brightness. I then used a basic program to take the 2 values and
generate
the 97 outher intermidiate values (1-100%).

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2001\09\16@131958 by M. Adam Davis

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Since each lamp type is different, there are no tables, since one table
might not work for the lamp you're using.

Most professional dimmers come with a set of standard tables, perhaps
3-6, and some come with user definable tables.

The best way to make a table is to put the light in a light proof box
with a sensor, and have the computer measure the brightness at each of
the 256 levels, going up and down (slowly).

Another method is to integrate the signal and determine the actual power
going into the bulb at a given level, since the power going in will
closely match the light output for most bulbs.

-Adam

David Duffy wrote:

{Quote hidden}

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2001\09\16@133236 by Sean H. Breheny

face picon face
Hi Adam,

Isn't light output versus input power a nonlinear function ? At lower input
power, the temperature of the filament is low and most of the power goes
into heat. As the temperature rises, more goes into producing light.

Sean


At 01:18 PM 9/16/01 -0400, you wrote:
>Another method is to integrate the signal and determine the actual power
>going into the bulb at a given level, since the power going in will
>closely match the light output for most bulbs.
>
>-Adam

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2001\09\16@154611 by M. Adam Davis

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Yes.  The resistance of the lamp filament is higher.

But it's much closer than treating the sine wave as a square wave and
saying the 256 steps are linear.

-Adam

Sean H. Breheny wrote:

{Quote hidden}

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2001\09\16@155044 by cision Electronic Solutions

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That's correct.  The color temperature changes with input power so the
entire output spectrum changes (shifts up) for a given incandescent light.
That's why halogens have good color - their color temperature is higher than
standard tungsten bulbs.

To some extent light output depends on what you're doing.  If you are
providing light for a color filter, for instance, then the output in that
spectral region may vary considerably.  Although I haven't tried this, I can
imagine some bulbs might peak in a particular spectral area and then begin
decreasing as color temperature is increased.  It might be interesting to
put a deep red filter in front of various bulbs and see how the output
varies with color temperature.   It's output plotted versus blue or green
filtered light should be very nonlinear.

Ed

{Original Message removed}

2001\09\16@155631 by Sean H. Breheny

face picon face
Well, that's true,too, but I'm not talking about resistance or the
waveform, I'm talking about radiation wavelength. Cooler objects radiate a
higher percentage of their power as heat. As you raise the temperature, you
not only raise the total power output, IIRC you also lower the wavelength
of maximum radiation. So, hotter objects are more efficient radiators of
light than cooler ones. For example, if you double the amount of power you
are feeding to the bulb, you may more than quadruple the amount of light
output you get (I don't know the exact relationship, but this amount of
change wouldn't surprise me).

Sean

At 03:42 PM 9/16/01 -0400, you wrote:
{Quote hidden}

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2001\09\16@180834 by Olin Lathrop

face picon face
> I have asked this before (some time back) on the list but never
> came up with a solution. What I need is a 256 byte table for a
> s-curve to convert a (linear) dim level (0=off, 255=full) into a value
> to use as a phase control variable in my lamp dimmer. Harold H
> posted a formula for it a while back but it goes way over my
> head I'm afraid. I searched the archives but there's no straight
> forward answer in there. A Google search did not reveal anything
> useful either. I was hoping that a Piclister had done this before &
> is willing to post it. I only need the table - not the phase control
> code any anything else. The rest of my code works fine.  :-)

This could be calculated, but you'd have to make a lot of guesses about
various parameters.  I would just measure the transfer function.  Hook up
the PIC to a light sensor and measure the resulting light intensity from
each of the possible phase outputs.  Since you only need relative not
absolute light measurement, you can calibrate the sensor by holding a point
light (an LED at fixed current) various distances from it.  Each time the
distance is doubled, the light intensity is reduced by four.


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Olin Lathrop, embedded systems consultant in Littleton Massachusetts
(978) 742-9014, .....olinKILLspamspam@spam@embedinc.com, http://www.embedinc.com

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2001\09\16@180851 by Olin Lathrop

face picon face
> Another method is to integrate the signal and determine the actual power
> going into the bulb at a given level, since the power going in will
> closely match the light output for most bulbs.

It will match total power out, but that is very different from visible light
power out.  The problem is you are moving around at the tail end of a black
body radiation curve, which is quite non-linear.


********************************************************************
Olin Lathrop, embedded systems consultant in Littleton Massachusetts
(978) 742-9014, olinspamKILLspamembedinc.com, http://www.embedinc.com

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2001\09\16@184949 by David Duffy

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I wrote:
> > I have asked this before (some time back) on the list but never
> > came up with a solution. What I need is a 256 byte table for a
> > s-curve to convert a (linear) dim level (0=off, 255=full) into a value
> > to use as a phase control variable in my lamp dimmer. Harold H
> > posted a formula for it a while back but it goes way over my
> > head I'm afraid. I searched the archives but there's no straight
> > forward answer in there. A Google search did not reveal anything
> > useful either. I was hoping that a Piclister had done this before &
> > is willing to post it. I only need the table - not the phase control
> > code any anything else. The rest of my code works fine.  :-)
> > Thanks...

Steven replied:
>It seems like your going through a lot of work for a little return.
>I doubt if you could perceive the difference between
>50%, 50.5% & 51% levels.

My current code has a 64 byte table. (not coded by me)
You can see the stepping at the low end of it mainly.
Maybe the table values are wrong & 64 steps are enough.
DMX & other standards use all 256 levels although I guess
it's up to the dimmer designer whether to actually implement
all 256 steps. I imagine some just shift the input byte a few
bits towards LSB and use a smaller table.
Regards...

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2001\09\16@185818 by Spehro Pefhany

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At 08:54 AM 9/17/01 +1000, you wrote:

>My current code has a 64 byte table. (not coded by me)
>You can see the stepping at the low end of it mainly.
>Maybe the table values are wrong & 64 steps are enough.
>DMX & other standards use all 256 levels although I guess
>it's up to the dimmer designer whether to actually implement
>all 256 steps. I imagine some just shift the input byte a few
>bits towards LSB and use a smaller table.

You may be able to improve things by doing linear interpolation
on your table. And on the mid-range "F" PICs you get 14 bits
on the output of the table for free.

Best regards,

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2001\09\16@212428 by Reginald Neale

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>
>each of the possible phase outputs.  Since you only need relative not
>absolute light measurement, you can calibrate the sensor by holding a point
>light (an LED at fixed current) various distances from it.  Each time the
>distance is doubled, the light intensity is reduced by four.


  This would work best for an LED in a diffuse package.
  Be careful to maintain the axial orientation constant.
  It's also going to tend to fall apart at the near end.
  I wouldn't depend on it any better than a few percent, and
  not for any source-tp-detector distances closer than about
  ten times the diameter of the LED.

  Reg Neale

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2001\09\16@224559 by Bob Ammerman

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Years ago I built a discrete-logic digital dimmer that broke the half cycle
into 256 linear steps. I seem to remember being able to easily see the
changes near the low end of the table.

Bob Ammerman
RAm Systems
(contract development of high performance, high function, low-level
software)

{Original Message removed}

2001\09\17@085504 by cision Electronic Solutions

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Olin, do you ever fully read a paragraph or do you always dissect each
sentence as a stand-alone?

-----Original Message-----
From: pic microcontroller discussion list
[EraseMEPICLISTspam_OUTspamTakeThisOuTMITVMA.MIT.EDU]On Behalf Of Olin Lathrop
Sent: Monday, September 17, 2001 7:03 AM
To: PICLISTspamspam_OUTMITVMA.MIT.EDU
Subject: Re: [EE]: Lamp S-Curve Table


> Although I haven't tried this, I can
> imagine some bulbs might peak in a particular spectral area and then begin
> decreasing as color temperature is increased.

While possible in theory this is not the case for normal filament bulbs.
These bulbs are actually very efficient in converting electrical energy into
radiation.  The problem is that most of this radiation is at longer than
visible wavelengths.  The spectral distribution of this radiation is
governed by the black body radiation law of physics.  Surface coatings can
have some effect, but mostly filament bulbs follow the black body radiation
pattern, which is only a function of temperature.  A bulb with a filament
temperature to maximize the radiation fraction at visible wavelengths is not
practical with any material available to us due to the filament temperature
required.


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Olin Lathrop, embedded systems consultant in Littleton Massachusetts
(978) 742-9014, @spam@olinKILLspamspamembedinc.com, http://www.embedinc.com

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2001\09\17@112717 by Olin Lathrop

face picon face
Ed Browne wrote:

> > > Although I haven't tried this, I can
> > > imagine some bulbs might peak in a particular spectral area and then
begin
> > > decreasing as color temperature is increased.
> >
> > While possible in theory this is not the case for normal filament bulbs.
> > These bulbs are actually very efficient in converting electrical energy
into
> > radiation.  The problem is that most of this radiation is at longer than
> > visible wavelengths.  The spectral distribution of this radiation is
> > governed by the black body radiation law of physics.  Surface coatings
can
> > have some effect, but mostly filament bulbs follow the black body
radiation
> > pattern, which is only a function of temperature.  A bulb with a
filament
> > temperature to maximize the radiation fraction at visible wavelengths is
not
> > practical with any material available to us due to the filament
temperature
> > required.
>
> Olin, do you ever fully read a paragraph or do you always dissect each
> sentence as a stand-alone?

I often skim over messages or skip messages entirely when I don't care about
the subject.  I'm not too interested in questions like "I built this PIC
programmer from a diagram I saw at http://www.catch-viruses-here.org and can't get
it to work.  I know I built everything perfectly and my program couldn't
have any errors in it and I've already spent two days on it and I'm
frustrated and its all your fault for knowing more about PICs than me so you
owe it to me to look thru my undocumented code and tell me exactly what's
wrong with my PIC."

In your case I did read the whole message, although I don't remember what
your overall point was.  Apparently I had nothing to add.

However, I do try to respond to incorrect statements whenever I notice them.
Since these messages are archived and many newbies are listening, I think it
is important to respond quickly whenever an incorrect statement is made.
People could assume any unchallanged statement is true.  I've noticed that
incorrect statements about PICs usually get pounced on quickly, but for some
reason many people are much more willing to play fast and loose with the
laws of physics.  I'm not.

I'm surprised you seem to have taken offense at my response.  The
surrounding text didn't qualify this statement any more, so there was no
point duplicating it.  You also seemed to be admitting you weren't sure with
phrases like "I haven't tried this" and "I can imagine".  Not that it would
have mattered, but it didn't seem like you had any ego invested in that
statement.


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2001\09\17@124414 by cision Electronic Solutions

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I've been caught in off topic threads before by out of context comments,
hence the statements "I haven't tried this" and "I can imagine" to thwart
those that take issue with almost every sentence.  I tried to add content to
the discussion without sliding off-topic.  Point in fact is that the topic
was about a light controller.  Someone had commented that the light output
was a nonlinear function.  I agreed and explained that as the filament heats
the blackbody radiation curve shifts ( although I used color temperature, as
used in colorimetry and photography, rather than blackbody radiation as used
in physics).  Therefore, the function is nonlinear with respect to total
light output.  Then I added an aside: that the light output is also
nonlinear with respect to the spectral content of that light.  This is only
important if color is important because the color content of the light
changes with current.

In retrospect, I wish I had not written the sentence that you jumped on
because the light output will not ever go down at a particular spectral
wavelength, in theory or otherwise.  The blackbody radiation monotonically
increases at all wavelengths - the entire curve shifts up.  However, the
relative light output between one particular spectral band and another will
change because the peak wavelength of the blackbody radiation curve gets
shorter as temperature increases.

Whereas I am pleased that you felt fit to read my entire post, if you would
like to discuss the physics of light and my involvement in it, please email
me personally or start a new topic.  Truth is, I am also looking for an
answer to his question so am particularly protective of this thread and
nuances thereof.  ;^)


Ed
{Original Message removed}

2001\09\17@131356 by Harold M Hallikainen

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The below mentioned attachment didn't make it thru the server. If anyone
would like a copy, email me at RemoveMEengineeringspamTakeThisOuTdovesystems.com.

Harold


FCC Rules Online at http://hallikainen.com/FccRules
Lighting control for theatre and television at http://www.dovesystems.com

--------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Harold M Hallikainen <haroldhallikainenEraseMEspam.....juno.com>
To: EraseMEPICLISTspamMITVMA.MIT.EDU
Date: Mon, 17 Sep 2001 09:56:52 -0700
Subject: Re: [EE]: Lamp S-Curve Table
Message-ID: <RemoveME20010917.100134.-624083.0.haroldhallikainenEraseMEspamEraseMEjuno.com>> X-Mailer: Juno 4.0.11
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=--__JNP_000_2bbc.7136.218a
Full-Name: Harold M Hallikainen

Below is the code used in the Dove Systems (
http://www.dovesystems.com)
DM406. These values run are put in a 16 bit compare register to generate
an interrupt and turn on the triac at the appropriate time. I've included
the definition of clicksPerHalfCycle60 where ProcessorClock is 16 (MHz)
and lineFreq is 60 (Hz). The resulting curve (DMX value versus RMS
voltage, based on measurements driving a 100W incandescent lamp) are
attached (assuming the attachment gets thru the listserv). This was all
based on a published curve (though I don't recall where) that related
desired RMS voltage to percent control. I then calculated the millipirads
'til turn on based on desired RMS for each DMX level to come up with this
table.

Good luck!


Harold


clicksPerHalfCycle60 set        ProcessorClock*d'1000000'/(d'8'*lineFreq) ;
Timer clicks (at 1/4 proc clock) per half line cycle

       retlw   high(d'1000'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000'); 0           1000
       retlw   high(d'972'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 1            972
       retlw   high(d'956'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 2            956
       retlw   high(d'944'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 3            944
       retlw   high(d'933'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 4            933
       retlw   high(d'923'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 5            923
       retlw   high(d'914'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 6            914
       retlw   high(d'906'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 7            906
       retlw   high(d'898'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 8            898
       retlw   high(d'891'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 9            891
       retlw   high(d'884'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 10           884
       retlw   high(d'878'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 11           878
       retlw   high(d'872'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 12           872
       retlw   high(d'866'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 13           866
       retlw   high(d'861'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 14           861
       retlw   high(d'856'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 15           856
       retlw   high(d'851'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 16           851
       retlw   high(d'847'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 17           847
       retlw   high(d'842'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 18           842
       retlw   high(d'838'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 19           838
       retlw   high(d'834'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 20           834
       retlw   high(d'830'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 21           830
       retlw   high(d'826'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 22           826
       retlw   high(d'822'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 23           822
       retlw   high(d'819'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 24           819
       retlw   high(d'815'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 25           815
       retlw   high(d'812'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 26           812
       retlw   high(d'808'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 27           808
       retlw   high(d'805'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 28           805
       retlw   high(d'802'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 29           802
       retlw   high(d'799'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 30           799
       retlw   high(d'796'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 31           796
       retlw   high(d'793'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 32           793
       retlw   high(d'790'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 33           790
       retlw   high(d'787'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 34           787
       retlw   high(d'784'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 35           784
       retlw   high(d'781'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 36           781
       retlw   high(d'778'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 37           778
       retlw   high(d'776'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 38           776
       retlw   high(d'773'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 39           773
       retlw   high(d'770'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 40           770
       retlw   high(d'767'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 41           767
       retlw   high(d'765'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 42           765
       retlw   high(d'762'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 43           762
       retlw   high(d'759'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 44           759
       retlw   high(d'757'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 45           757
       retlw   high(d'754'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 46           754
       retlw   high(d'751'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 47           751
       retlw   high(d'749'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 48           749
       retlw   high(d'746'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 49           746
       retlw   high(d'743'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 50           743
       retlw   high(d'741'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 51           741
       retlw   high(d'738'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 52           738
       retlw   high(d'736'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 53           736
       retlw   high(d'733'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 54           733
       retlw   high(d'730'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 55           730
       retlw   high(d'728'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 56           728
       retlw   high(d'725'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 57           725
       retlw   high(d'722'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 58           722
       retlw   high(d'720'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 59           720
       retlw   high(d'717'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 60           717
       retlw   high(d'714'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 61           714
       retlw   high(d'712'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 62           712
       retlw   high(d'709'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 63           709
       retlw   high(d'706'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 64           706
       retlw   high(d'704'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 65           704
       retlw   high(d'701'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 66           701
       retlw   high(d'698'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 67           698
       retlw   high(d'695'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 68           695
       retlw   high(d'693'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 69           693
       retlw   high(d'690'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 70           690
       retlw   high(d'687'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 71           687
       retlw   high(d'685'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 72           685
       retlw   high(d'682'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 73           682
       retlw   high(d'679'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 74           679
       retlw   high(d'676'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 75           676
       retlw   high(d'674'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 76           674
       retlw   high(d'671'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 77           671
       retlw   high(d'668'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 78           668
       retlw   high(d'665'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 79           665
       retlw   high(d'663'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 80           663
       retlw   high(d'660'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 81           660
       retlw   high(d'657'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 82           657
       retlw   high(d'655'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 83           655
       retlw   high(d'652'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 84           652
       retlw   high(d'649'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 85           649
       retlw   high(d'646'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 86           646
       retlw   high(d'644'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 87           644
       retlw   high(d'641'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 88           641
       retlw   high(d'638'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 89           638
       retlw   high(d'635'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 90           635
       retlw   high(d'633'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 91           633
       retlw   high(d'630'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 92           630
       retlw   high(d'627'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 93           627
       retlw   high(d'625'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 94           625
       retlw   high(d'622'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 95           622
       retlw   high(d'619'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 96           619
       retlw   high(d'616'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 97           616
       retlw   high(d'614'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 98           614
       retlw   high(d'611'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 99           611
       retlw   high(d'608'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 100          608
       retlw   high(d'606'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 101          606
       retlw   high(d'603'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 102          603
       retlw   high(d'601'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 103          601
       retlw   high(d'598'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 104          598
       retlw   high(d'595'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 105          595
       retlw   high(d'593'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 106          593
       retlw   high(d'590'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 107          590
       retlw   high(d'588'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 108          588
       retlw   high(d'585'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 109          585
       retlw   high(d'582'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 110          582
       retlw   high(d'580'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 111          580
       retlw   high(d'577'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 112          577
       retlw   high(d'575'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 113          575
       retlw   high(d'572'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 114          572
       retlw   high(d'570'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 115          570
       retlw   high(d'567'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 116          567
       retlw   high(d'565'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 117          565
       retlw   high(d'562'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 118          562
       retlw   high(d'560'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 119          560
       retlw   high(d'558'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 120          558
       retlw   high(d'555'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 121          555
       retlw   high(d'553'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 122          553
       retlw   high(d'550'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 123          550
       retlw   high(d'548'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 124          548
       retlw   high(d'546'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 125          546
       retlw   high(d'543'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 126          543
       retlw   high(d'541'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 127          541
       retlw   high(d'539'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 128          539
       retlw   high(d'536'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 129          536
       retlw   high(d'534'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 130          534
       retlw   high(d'532'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 131          532
       retlw   high(d'529'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 132          529
       retlw   high(d'527'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 133          527
       retlw   high(d'525'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 134          525
       retlw   high(d'523'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 135          523
       retlw   high(d'520'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 136          520
       retlw   high(d'518'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 137          518
       retlw   high(d'516'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 138          516
       retlw   high(d'514'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 139          514
       retlw   high(d'511'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 140          511
       retlw   high(d'509'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 141          509
       retlw   high(d'507'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 142          507
       retlw   high(d'505'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 143          505
       retlw   high(d'503'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 144          503
       retlw   high(d'501'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 145          501
       retlw   high(d'499'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 146          499
       retlw   high(d'496'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 147          496
       retlw   high(d'494'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 148          494
       retlw   high(d'492'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 149          492
       retlw   high(d'490'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 150          490
       retlw   high(d'488'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 151          488
       retlw   high(d'486'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 152          486
       retlw   high(d'484'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 153          484
       retlw   high(d'482'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 154          482
       retlw   high(d'480'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 155          480
       retlw   high(d'477'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 156          477
       retlw   high(d'475'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 157          475
       retlw   high(d'473'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 158          473
       retlw   high(d'471'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 159          471
       retlw   high(d'469'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 160          469
       retlw   high(d'467'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 161          467
       retlw   high(d'465'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 162          465
       retlw   high(d'463'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 163          463
       retlw   high(d'461'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 164          461
       retlw   high(d'459'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 165          459
       retlw   high(d'457'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 166          457
       retlw   high(d'455'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 167          455
       retlw   high(d'452'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 168          452
       retlw   high(d'450'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 169          450
       retlw   high(d'448'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 170          448
       retlw   high(d'446'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 171          446
       retlw   high(d'444'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 172          444
       retlw   high(d'442'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000') ; 173        442
       retlw   high(d'441'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 174          441
       retlw   high(d'438'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 175          438
       retlw   high(d'435'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 176          435
       retlw   high(d'433'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 177          433
       retlw   high(d'431'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 178          431
       retlw   high(d'429'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 179          429
       retlw   high(d'427'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 180          427
       retlw   high(d'424'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 181          424
       retlw   high(d'422'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 182          422
       retlw   high(d'420'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 183          420
       retlw   high(d'418'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 184          418
       retlw   high(d'415'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 185          415
       retlw   high(d'413'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 186          413
       retlw   high(d'411'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 187          411
       retlw   high(d'409'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 188          409
       retlw   high(d'406'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 189          406
       retlw   high(d'404'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 190          404
       retlw   high(d'401'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 191          401
       retlw   high(d'399'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 192          399
       retlw   high(d'397'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 193          397
       retlw   high(d'394'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 194          394
       retlw   high(d'392'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 195          392
       retlw   high(d'389'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 196          389
       retlw   high(d'387'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 197          387
       retlw   high(d'384'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 198          384
       retlw   high(d'382'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 199          382
       retlw   high(d'379'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 200          379
       retlw   high(d'377'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 201          377
       retlw   high(d'374'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 202          374
       retlw   high(d'371'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 203          371
       retlw   high(d'369'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 204          369
       retlw   high(d'366'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 205          366
       retlw   high(d'363'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 206          363
       retlw   high(d'360'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 207          360
       retlw   high(d'357'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 208          357
       retlw   high(d'355'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 209          355
       retlw   high(d'352'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 210          352
       retlw   high(d'349'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 211          349
       retlw   high(d'346'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 212          346
       retlw   high(d'343'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 213          343
       retlw   high(d'340'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 214          340
       retlw   high(d'337'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 215          337
       retlw   high(d'334'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 216          334
       retlw   high(d'331'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 217          331
       retlw   high(d'327'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 218          327
       retlw   high(d'324'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 219          324
       retlw   high(d'321'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 220          321
       retlw   high(d'318'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 221          318
       retlw   high(d'314'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 222          314
       retlw   high(d'311'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 223          311
       retlw   high(d'307'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 224          307
       retlw   high(d'304'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 225          304
       retlw   high(d'300'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 226          300
       retlw   high(d'296'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 227          296
       retlw   high(d'293'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 228          293
       retlw   high(d'289'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 229          289
       retlw   high(d'285'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 230          285
       retlw   high(d'281'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 231          281
       retlw   high(d'277'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 232          277
       retlw   high(d'273'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 233          273
       retlw   high(d'268'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 234          268
       retlw   high(d'264'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 235          264
       retlw   high(d'259'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 236          259
       retlw   high(d'255'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 237          255
       retlw   high(d'250'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 238          250
       retlw   high(d'245'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 239          245
       retlw   high(d'240'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 240          240
       retlw   high(d'234'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 241          234
       retlw   high(d'229'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 242          229
       retlw   high(d'223'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 243          223
       retlw   high(d'217'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 244          217
       retlw   high(d'210'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 245          210
       retlw   high(d'203'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 246          203
       retlw   high(d'196'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 247          196
       retlw   high(d'188'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 248          188
       retlw   high(d'179'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 249          179
       retlw   high(d'170'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 250          170
       retlw   high(d'159'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 251          159
       retlw   high(d'147'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 252          147
       retlw   high(d'131'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 253          131
       retlw   high(d'112'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 254          112
       retlw   high(d'081'*ClicksPerHalfCycle60/d'1000')       ; 255          081

FCC Rules Online at http://hallikainen.com/FccRules
Lighting control for theatre and television at http://www.dovesystems.com

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2001\09\17@132621 by Peter L. Peres

picon face
The light output is a nonlinear function of the filament temperature which
is a nonlinear function of the input power which is a nonlinear (integral
of area under chopped sine wave) function of the phase delay used. There
is another formula for luminance that relates light output to voltage
directly, but you still need to integrate the chopped sine to obtain Uef.
Neither luminance formula takes the spectrum variation into account when
the temperature changes, so it should be corrected for a visible bandpass
filter (optical). There are two kinds of those, those that simulate the
sensitivity of the eye at a certain illumination, and those that are
absolute. You probably want an absolute filter (near rectangular Bode
plot).

So the light output can be written as the convolution of these functions.
The constants are complicated to determine so it is better to use a
photometer with visible bandpass filter in a dark room to obtain a set of
data points, aas someone else has said. I have used a simple photocell and
an analog meter for this and other light metering, with a visible 72mm
filter rested on the photocell. Meter deflection on I scale is directly
proportional to illumination. Be sure to use a filter because the filament
outputs a lot of infrared and silicon photocells are sensitive to that.

Peter

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